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Chapter 3

Kinesiology 2241A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Lateral Pass, Shoulder Joint, Lever Action


Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
Kinesiology 2241A/B
Professor
Thomas Richard Jenkyn
Chapter
3

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Biomechanics Lab 3
1. For each skill, define the following:
a) Skill classification (i.e. open or closed)
The rugby lateral pass is an open and discrete skill. It is an open skill as movers must often perform in response to
changes in the environment such as an unpredictable action from an opponent. This skill is discrete as it has a
beginning and an end, when the player carries the ball to when he passes it to another player.
The volleyball spike is also an open and discrete skill. It is an open skills as the spiker must perform in response to
changes in the unpredictable environment, for instance, the opponent blocking. This skill is discrete as it has a
beginning and an end, when the player first jumps to when the player ceases
b) Overall performance objective (OPO)
The OPO for a volleyball spike is to project the ball downward into the opponent’s court with maximum speed and
to send the ball to a particular location within the court (accuracy of projection).
The OPO for a rugby lateral pass is to project the ball to a teammate in a direction parallel to or away from the
opposing goal line.
2. Analyze the performance of each skill using the principles covered in class, specifically
a) Which body segment motions are lever actions and which are wheel-axle motions?
Wheel and axle motions are produced at the wrist joint and the shoulder joint. However, the elbow joint produces
the lever action. This is for both the spike and the lateral rugby pass.
b) What is the sequence of body segment motions (i.e. first to last)?
Rugby Lateral Pass
1. The trunk externally rotates towards the direction where the player is intending to pass to
2. The shoulder closer the direction of the pass, horizontally flexes the shoulder while the elbow joint is in slight
flexion
3. The other shoulder adducts while the elbow joint is internally rotated and slightly flexed
4. The forearm of the other arm pronates while the forearm that is in the direction of the pass supinates
5. The other shoulder flexes while the shoulder that was closest to where the ball is being passed to horizontally
extends. The wrist extends as well
Volleyball Spike
1. The dominant shoulder is in extension while elbow joint is in flexion, the non dominant shoulder is slightly
adducts while the forearm is in a supinated position.
2. The dominant shoulder moves to flexion while the elbow extends and the wrist flexes
c) What is the path that the hands follow (i.e. is it rectilinear or curvilinear) when
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