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Chapter 1

Kinesiology 2241A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Statics


Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
Kinesiology 2241A/B
Professor
Bob Vigars
Chapter
1

Page:
of 3
Chapter 1: Study and Analysis of Human Movement
1.1 KINESIOLOGY AND BIOMECHANICS: AREAS OF STUDY
Study human movement from various perspectives
oBiomechanical, psychological, philosophical, sociological, physiological
Kinesiology – study of human movement from anatomical or mechanical perspective
Biomechanics – study in which knowledge and methods of mechanics are applied to
structure and function of human system (i.e. skeletal, articular, neuromuscular systems)
Physical Characteristics of the Body
By knowing physical characteristics of human body, can analyze movements
Growth/structure of bones, joints, muscles used to determine appropriate/inappropriate
movement activities for different age groups (i.e. children, adults, people with atypical
needs) – movement analysis can be very helpful
Anthropometrics – study concerned with measures of body’s physical characteristics
oMeasurement of body size, shape, height, composition, weight, volume
Mechanical Characteristics of Human Movement
Mechanics – study of the mechanical aspects of any system – 2 categories:
1. Statics – study of factors associated with non-moving systems
2. Dynamics – study of factors associated with systems in motion
a. Kinematics – study of time and space factors of motion of a system
b. Kinetics – study of the forces acting on a body influencing its movement
1.2 APPROACHES FOR STUDYIGN MOVEMENT
Two approaches for analyzing biological and mechanical aspects of movement:
oQuantitative – describing movement of body in numerical terms
Eliminates subjective description – solely relies on numerical data
oQualitative – describing movement in non-numerical terms
Performance evaluation based on analyst’s ability to recognize critical
features of skill
Most used method to asses quality of performance
Observation based – videos are valuable visual feedback to performer
Allow for small refinements to be made
Efficiency and Effectiveness of Performance
Efficient movement – a given amount of work done with MIN energy expenditure
oEfficiency = work x energy
oEx: marathon runner/swimmer – do as much work as possible with limited energy
oMore efficient – can continue task longer at same pace or can do it at faster pace
with less energy expended
Effective movement – determining best movement to help performer successfully
accomplish overall performance objective
oUsually most important approach for sports
oEx: 100-m sprint
Maximize, Minimize, or Optimize?
Marathon runner would not be successful if energy was maximized or minimized
Thus, runner needs to optimize running speed and rate of energy expenditure
oOptimal speed – fastest pace runner can maintain for required race distance
Ex: running speed and work production
oPerformances that are frequently optimized rather than MIN/MAX
Ex: cycling
oLow correlation between efficiency and mechanical effectiveness of pedalling
oExample of optimizing efficiency to maximize effectiveness
Effective movement is generally optimally efficient BUT maximally
efficient movement not necessarily biomechanically effective
**In any activity in which energy must be conserved to complete an event, efficiency is
important. When energy conservation is not necessary, efficiency is reduced in favor of
effectiveness. Examples include any relatively brief effort for speed, accuracy, projectile distance
or height, and body maneuvering.**