HR Management - Chapter 5 Notes

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Western University
Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 1021A/B
Ian Dunn

Chapter 5 – Orientation, Training, and Development Introduction  Orientation: Formal process of familiarizing new employees with the organization, their jobs, and their work unit and embedding organizational values, beliefs, and accepted behaviours.  Training: The acquisition of skills, behaviours, and abilities to perform current work.  Development: The acquisition of skills, behaviours, and abilities to perform future work or to solve an organizational problem.  Primary goal of OTD: contribute to the organization’s overall goals.  Approach OTD needs in a systematic way to emphasize the clear linkage to the organizations’ strategic decision.  Important for employees to hone their KSAs (knowledge, skills, and abilities) to cope with new processes and systems. Scope of Orientation, Training, and Development  All employees need some type of T&D on an ongoing basis to maintain effective performance or to adjust to new ways of work.  Learning is the ultimate goal of T&D.  Higher emphasis on providing frequent T&D to employees.  Training has a direct financial return and improves employee engagement, which reduces turnover. Systematic OTD  Systems approach to training: 1. Needs assessment. (identify objectives & criteria)  Performance assessment – underperforming or inefficient?  Organizational level – examine environment and strategy of company  Task level – review work activities to determine needed competencies  Person level – review which employees need training  4 questions: importance, need, have, gap between need and have  Other issues that require T&D: M&A, technological change, globalization, re- engineering, total quality management, restructuring, downsizing, empowerment, teamwork, and workforce trends. 2. Program design. (pretesting, selecting method, plan content)  Focus on 4 issues: instructional objectives, trainee readiness and motivation, principles of learning, and characteristics of instructors.  Training must build a bridge between employees and the organization. Page 1 of 5 3. Training delivery. (schedule, conduct, monitor)  Choosing instructional method: determine which is appropriate for the KSAs to be learned.  OJT, apprenticeship, cooperative training, internship.  Classroom instruction, self-directed learning, audio-visual, stimulation, e- learning, on-the-job experiences, seminars and conferences, case studies, management games, role playing. 4. Evaluation of training. (measure outcomes, compare to objectives & criteria)  Reactions, learning, behaviour, results.  Instructional objectives: Desired outcomes of a training program. (skills, knowledge, behaviours)  Trainee readiness: The consideration of a trainee’s maturity and experience when assessing him or her. (recognize need for new KSAs, desire to learn)  Use positive reinforcement.  Eliminate threats and punishment.  Be flexible.  Have participants set goals.  Design interesting instruction.  Break down physical and psychological obstacles to learning.  Principles of learning:  Goal setting – clarity  Individual differences – understand differences  Active practice and repetition  Whole-versus-part learning – break down jobs into parts  Massed-versus-distributed learning – distribute training time  Feedback and reinforcement – purposes of knowledge and motivation  Meaningfulness of presentation  Modelling – learn by watching  Behaviour modification: Technique that if behaviour is rewarded it will be exhibited more frequently in the future.  On-the-job training (OJT): Method by which employees are given hands-on experience with instructions from their supervisor or other trainer. It is viewed as the potentially most cost effective means of facilitating learning in the workplace.  Lack of a well-structured training environment.  Poor training skills of managers.  Absence of well-defined job performance criteria.  Apprenticeship training: System of training in which a worker entering the skilled trades is given thorough instruction and experience, both on and off the job, in the practical and theoretical aspects of the work.  Cooperative training: Training program that combines practical on-the-job experience with formal education.  Internship programs: Programs jointly sponsored by colleges, universities, and other organizations that offer students the opportunity to gain real-life experience while allowing them to find out how they will perform in work organizations.  E-learning: Learning that takes place through electronic media. Page 2 of 5  Transfer of training: Effective application of principles learned to what is required on the job. Orientation  Objective: Get new employees off to a good start.  Designed to develop employees’ attitudes about work and their role.  Characteristics:  Familiarizing new employees with the organization, their job, and their work unit.  Embedding organizational values, beliefs, and accepted behaviours.  Active involvement and participation from the supervisor.  Benefits:  Lower turnover  Increased productivity  Improved employee morale  Lower recruiting and training costs  Facilitation of learning  Reduction of the new employee’s anxiety  Must be a continuous process since an organization is faced with ever-changing conditions.  HR department is responsible for coordinating orientation activities and providing information about employment conditions pay, benefits, etc.  Supervisor has the most important r
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