Chapter 5 – Orientation, Training, and Development
Orientation: Formal process of familiarizing new employees with the organization, their
jobs, and their work unit and embedding organizational values, beliefs, and accepted
Training: The acquisition of skills, behaviours, and abilities to perform current work.
Development: The acquisition of skills, behaviours, and abilities to perform future work
or to solve an organizational problem.
Primary goal of OTD: contribute to the organization’s overall goals.
Approach OTD needs in a systematic way to emphasize the clear linkage to the
organizations’ strategic decision.
Important for employees to hone their KSAs (knowledge, skills, and abilities) to cope
with new processes and systems.
Scope of Orientation, Training, and Development
All employees need some type of T&D on an ongoing basis to maintain effective
performance or to adjust to new ways of work.
Learning is the ultimate goal of T&D.
Higher emphasis on providing frequent T&D to employees.
Training has a direct financial return and improves employee engagement, which reduces
Systems approach to training:
1. Needs assessment. (identify objectives & criteria)
Performance assessment – underperforming or inefficient?
Organizational level – examine environment and strategy of company
Task level – review work activities to determine needed competencies
Person level – review which employees need training
4 questions: importance, need, have, gap between need and have
Other issues that require T&D: M&A, technological change, globalization, re-
engineering, total quality management, restructuring, downsizing, empowerment,
teamwork, and workforce trends.
2. Program design. (pretesting, selecting method, plan content)
Focus on 4 issues: instructional objectives, trainee readiness and motivation,
principles of learning, and characteristics of instructors.
Training must build a bridge between employees and the organization.
Page 1 of 5 3. Training delivery. (schedule, conduct, monitor)
Choosing instructional method: determine which is appropriate for the KSAs to
OJT, apprenticeship, cooperative training, internship.
Classroom instruction, self-directed learning, audio-visual, stimulation, e-
learning, on-the-job experiences, seminars and conferences, case studies,
management games, role playing.
4. Evaluation of training. (measure outcomes, compare to objectives & criteria)
Reactions, learning, behaviour, results.
Instructional objectives: Desired outcomes of a training program. (skills, knowledge,
Trainee readiness: The consideration of a trainee’s maturity and experience when
assessing him or her. (recognize need for new KSAs, desire to learn)
Use positive reinforcement.
Eliminate threats and punishment.
Have participants set goals.
Design interesting instruction.
Break down physical and psychological obstacles to learning.
Principles of learning:
Goal setting – clarity
Individual differences – understand differences
Active practice and repetition
Whole-versus-part learning – break down jobs into parts
Massed-versus-distributed learning – distribute training time
Feedback and reinforcement – purposes of knowledge and motivation
Meaningfulness of presentation
Modelling – learn by watching
Behaviour modification: Technique that if behaviour is rewarded it will be exhibited
more frequently in the future.
On-the-job training (OJT): Method by which employees are given hands-on experience
with instructions from their supervisor or other trainer. It is viewed as the potentially
most cost effective means of facilitating learning in the workplace.
Lack of a well-structured training environment.
Poor training skills of managers.
Absence of well-defined job performance criteria.
Apprenticeship training: System of training in which a worker entering the skilled
trades is given thorough instruction and experience, both on and off the job, in the
practical and theoretical aspects of the work.
Cooperative training: Training program that combines practical on-the-job experience
with formal education.
Internship programs: Programs jointly sponsored by colleges, universities, and other
organizations that offer students the opportunity to gain real-life experience while
allowing them to find out how they will perform in work organizations.
E-learning: Learning that takes place through electronic media.
Page 2 of 5 Transfer of training: Effective application of principles learned to what is required on
Objective: Get new employees off to a good start.
Designed to develop employees’ attitudes about work and their role.
Familiarizing new employees with the organization, their job, and their work unit.
Embedding organizational values, beliefs, and accepted behaviours.
Active involvement and participation from the supervisor.
Improved employee morale
Lower recruiting and training costs
Facilitation of learning
Reduction of the new employee’s anxiety
Must be a continuous process since an organization is faced with ever-changing
HR department is responsible for coordinating orientation activities and providing
information about employment conditions pay, benefits, etc.
Supervisor has the most important r