Chapter 1 The nature and important of leadership
The meaning of leadership
The ability to inspire confidence and support among the people who are needed to
achieve organizational goals.
It is needed at all levels in an organization and can be practiced to some extent even
by a person not assigned to a formal leadership position.
“C suite”(CEO, COO, and CFO) takes the initiative and risks.
Leadership as a partnership
The leader and the group members are connected in such a way that the power between
them is approximately balanced.
Control shift from the leader to the group member.
Four valid partnerships to exist:
1. Exchange of purpose.
Every worker at every level is responsible for defining vision and values.
2. A right to say no.
3. Joint accountability 承担共同的责任
4. Absolute honest
Leadership as a relationship
72% think social skills is essential, and 28% think Internet skills is essential.
Leadership versus management
Leadership deal with the interpersonal aspects of a manager’s job.
Change, inspiration 灵感, motivation 动机, and influence.
Key distinction between management and leadership
Management produces order 秩序, consistency 一致性, and predictability 可预知性.
Leadership produces change and adaptability to new product, new markets, new
competitors, new customers, and new work processes.
Leadership involves having a vision of what the organization can become and
mobilizing 动员 people to accomplish it.
Leadership requires eliciting 征求 cooperation and teamwork.
Leadership produce change, management is more likely to produce a degree of
predictability and order.
Top-level leaders are likely to transform their organizations; where as top-level
managers just manage (or maintain) organizations.
A leader creates a vision to direct the organization. In contrast, the key function of the
manager is to implement the vision.
Effective leaders also manage, effective managers also lead.
The impact of leadership on organizational performance
Research and opinion: leadership does make a difference
Transductional 传导性的 leadership was not significantly related to performance
Charismatic 魅力性的 leadership showed a slight positive relationship with performance
When the environment is uncertain, charismatic leadership is more strongly related to
Leader might be responsible for somewhere between 15% and 45% of a firm’s
Attribution theory 归因理论
The theory of how we explain the causes of events.
Most organizational successes are attributed to heroic leaders.
Research and opinion: formal leadership does not make a difference
Antileadership argument holds that leadership has a smaller impact on organizational
outcomes than do forces in the situation.
Three major arguments:
1. Substitutes for leadership At times competent 无能力的 leadership is not necessary, and incompetent
leadership can be counterbalanced 抵消 by certain factors in the work situation.
a) Closely knit teams 结合 of highly trained individuals
b) Intrinsic 内在的 satisfaction
Employees, who find strongly self-motivating, or intrinsically satisfying,
require a minimum of leadership.
c) Computer technology
Use network to ask for assistance from other workers.
d) Professional norms 专业规范
Workers who incorporate 体现 strong professional norms often require a
minimum of supervision and leadership.
This theory may be flawed and leadership does indeed have an impact on group
The likability of the leader and whether the leader provides rewards for
good performance were found to be the major correlates of performance.
2. Leadership irrelevance
Factors outside the leader’s control have a large impact on business outcomes
than do leadership actions.
Ex: cell phones.
High-level leaders have unilateral 单方面的 control over only a few resources
Modern organization effective leadership means widespread collaboration 合作
in obtaining ideas, rather than the heroic leader doing all the innovating.
Authority and power are shared, and people lead themselves.
3. Complexity theory
Organizations are complex systems that cannot be explained by usual rules of
Forces outside the leader or manager’s control determine a company’s fate 命运.
1. Figurehead 有名无实
Engaging in ceremonial activities, or acting as a figurehead.
2. Spokesperson 发言人
Answering letters or inquiries and formally reporting to individuals and groups
outside the manager’s direct organizational unit.
3. Negotiator 谈判者
Make deal with others (superiors, other units in the organization, suppliers and
vendors) for needed resources.
4. Coach and motivator
5. Team builder
6. Team player
7. Technical problem solver
8. Entrepreneur 主办者
Suggesting innovative ideas or furthering the business aspects of the firm.
9. Strategic planner
The satisfactions and frustrations of being a leader
Satisfactions of leaders
1. A feeling of power and prestige 声望
2. A chance to help others grow and develop