MOS 3321 Chapter 4.pdf

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Department
Management and Organizational Studies
Course
Management and Organizational Studies 1021A/B
Professor
Kevin Thompson
Semester
Winter

Description
Motivation and Values 2013-01-10 12:26 PM Introduction • Study of the general population: o 7% vegetarian o 10 – 20% interested in vegetarian options in addition to their traditio nal fare of meat o Women aged 15 to 25 are the group of people who most frequently eliminate meat from their diets • To understand motivation is to understand why consumers do what they do • The goal of marketing is to satisfy consumers’ needs The Motivation Process • Motivation – processes that cause people to behave as they do • Need is aroused that the consumer wishes to satisfy o Once a need has been activated, a state of tension exists that drives the consumer to attempt to reduce or eliminate that need • Utilitarian Need – desire to achieve some functional or practical benefit • Hedonic Need – experiential need involving emotional responses or fantasies • Goal – desired end state • Discrepancy exists between the consumer’s present state and some ideal state o Creates a state of tension o The magnitude of this tension determines the urgency the consumer feels to reduce the tension o Drive – degree of arousal • Want – manifestation of a need o E.g. Hunger is a basic need that must be satisfied by all; the lack of food cr eates a tension state that can be reduced by the intake of such products as cheeseburgers. The specific route taken to hunger reduction is culturally determined • Motivation can be described in terms of its strength, or the pull it exerts on the cnd itsr, a direction, or the particular way the consumer attempts to reduce motivational tension Motivational Strength • The degree to which a person is willing to expend energy to reach one goal as opposed to another reflects his or her underlying motivation to attain that goal Biological versus Learned Needs • Instinct is inferred from the behaviour it is supposed to explain (this type of circular explanation is called a tautology) Drive Theory • Focuses on biological needs that produce unpleasant states of arousal (such as your stomach grumbling during a morning class) • Tension reduction has been proposed as a basic mechanism governing human behaviour • Tension – unpleasant state that exists if a person’s consumption needs are not fulfilled • Tension activates goal-oriented behaviour that attempts to reduce or eliminate this unpleasant state and return to a balanced one, called homeostasis • A person’s degree of motivation depends on the distance between his or her present state and the goal • Drive theory runs into d ifficulties when it tries to explain some facets of human behaviour that run counter to its predictions o People often do things that increase a drive state rather than decrease it o E.g. People may delay gratification. If you know you are going out for a lavish dinner, you might decide to forgo a snack earlier in the day even though you are hungry at the time Expectancy Theory • Behaviour is largely pulled by expectations of achieving desirable outcomes – positive incentives – rather than pushed from within Motivational Direction • Motives are goal oriented in that specific objectives are desired to satisfy a need • The objective of marketers is to convince consumers that the alternative they offer provides the best chance to attain the goal Needs versus Wants • The specific way a need is satisfied depends on the individual’s unique history and learning experiences and his or her cultural environment • The particular form of consumption used to satisfy a need is termed a want Types of Needs • Biogenic Needs – elements necessary to maintain life, such as food, water, air, and shelter • Psychogenic Needs – acquired in the process of becoming a member of a culture; need for status, power, affiliation, etc.; reflect the priorities of a culture, and their effect on behaviou r will vary in different environments • The satisfaction of utilitarian needs implies that consumers will emphasize the objective, tangible attributes of products, such as kilometers per litre of gas in a car • Hedonic needs are subjective and experiential, leading consumers to rely on a product because it meets their needs for excitement, self-confidence, or fantasy perhaps to escape the mundane or routine aspects of life • Consumers may be motivated to purchase a product because it provides both types of benefits  Mink coat (luxurious image and provides warmth throughout the winter) Motivational Conflicts • Valance – goal can be positive or negative o A positively valued goal is one toward which consumers direct their behaviour; they are motivated to approach the goal and will seek out products that will be instrumental in attaining it o Sometimes consumers are motivated to avoid a negative outcome. They will structure their purchases or consumption activities to r educe the chances of attaining this end result • Three types of conflict can occur: o Approach – Approach o Approach – Avoidance o Avoidance – Avoidance Approach – Approach Conflict • A person must choose between two desirable alternatives • Theory of Cognitive Dissonance – people have a need for order and consistency in their lives and a state of tension is created when beliefs or behaviours conflict with one another • By choosing one product and not the other, the person gets the bad qualities of the chosen prandct loses out on the good qualities of the unchosen one o This loss creates an unpleasant, dissonant state that the person is motivated to reduce o People tend to convince themselves after the fact that choices they made were smart ones by finding additional reasons to support the alternatives they chose, r perhaps by “discovering” flaws with the options they did not choose • A marketer can resolve an approach -approach conflict by bundling several benefits together o E.g. Miller Lite’s claim that it is “less fillin g” and “tastes great” allows the drinker to “have his beer and drink it too” Approach – Avoidance Conflict • Many products and services we desire have negative consequences attached to them • May feel guilty when buying a status -laden product like a mink coat • When we desire a goal but wish to avoid it at the same time, an approach -avoidance conflict exists • Some solutions: o Proliferation of fake furs, which eliminate guilt about harming animals while still allowing you to make a fashion statement o Diet foods which promise good food without the calories o Many marketers try to overcome guilt by convincing consumers that they are deserving of luxuries (L’Oreal  “Because I’m worth it!”) Avoidance – Avoidance Conflict • Caught “between a rock and a hard place” • Face a choice between two undesirable alternatives • E.g. Option of either throwing more money into an old car or buying a new one • Marketers frequently address this conflict through messages that stress the unforeseen benefits of choosing on option (e.g. emphasizin g special credit plans to ease the pain of new -car payments) Classifying Consumer Needs • Henry Murray o Delineates a set of psychogenic needs that (sometimes in combination) result in specific behaviours o Biogenic Needs  Food, water, air, sleep, sex, shelter o Psychogenic Needs  Dominance, superiority, emotional stability, achievement, compliance, order, autonomy, affiliation, analysis, dependence, self -depreciation, exhibition, assistance, change, endurance, aggression, defendence, play o Need structure serves as the basis for a number of personality tests, such as the Tematic Apperception Test (TAT) and the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) o TAT  Subjects are shown 4 – 6 ambiguous pictures and asked to write answers to four directing questions about the pictures  The 4 questions are: (1) What is happening? (2) What has led to this situation (3) What is being thought? (4) What will happen?  Allowed 4 minutes of writing time  Content is analyzed for references to certain needs and scored whenever that need is mentioned  Theory is that people will freely project their own subconscious needs onto the ambiguous picture Specific Needs and Buying Behaviour • Individuals with a high need for achievement strongly value personal accomplishment o Place a premium on products and services that signify success • Need for affiliation (to be in the company of other people) o Products and services that alleviate loneliness and that are consumed among groups of people at places such as athletic venues, bars, and shopping malls • Need for power (to control one’s environment) o Products and services ranging from “souped -up” muscle cars to hotels, restaurants and resorts, promise to respond to the customer’s every whim • Need for uniqueness (to assert one’s individual identity) o Products that pledge to accentuate a consumer’s distinctive qualities Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Abraham Maslow • Originally developed to understand personal growth and the attainment of “peak experiences” • Implies the order of development is fixed • Physiological  Safety  Belongingness  Ego Needs  Self-Actualization • Physiological: Water, sleep, food (lower level need) Safety: Security, shelter, protection Belongingness: Love, friendship, acceptance by others Ego Needs: Prestige, status, accomplishment Self-Actualization: Self-fulfillment, enriching experiences (upper level need) • Safety needs are met by unions, social welfare programs, and insurance policies • Inwardly directed ego needs reflect an individual’s need for self -acceptance, self-esteem, achievement, and success • Outwardly directed ego needs include the needs for prestige, reputation, status, and recognition from others • Predicts that higher-order needs become the driving force behind human behaviour as the consumer’s lower-needs are satisfied • Satisfaction does not motivate behaviour; dissatisfaction does • Lower needs are never totally satisfied but are ongoing o We do not need to satisfy one need totally before the next level of need motivates our behaviour • Consumers’ feelings about the activity of gardening were found to express needs at all levels • Problems with Maslow’s theory: o No measurement tool for researchers to test the need hierarchy empirically o Cannot measure precisely how well -satisfied one need is before the next higher need becomes operational o Assumptions may be particular to Western culture • Many Asian cultures operate on the premise that the welfare of the group (belongingness needs) is more highly valued than needs of the individual (esteem needs) Consumer Involvement • Involvement – “a person’s perceived relevance of the object based on their inherent needs, values and interests” • Object – a product (or brand), an advertisement, or a purchase situation • When consumers are intent on doing what they can to satisfy a need, they will be motivatepayo attention to and process any information felt to be relevant to achieving their goals • Involvement can be viewed as the motivation to process information • To the degree that there is a perceived link between a consumer’s needs, goals, or values and produ ct knowledge, the consumer will be motivated to pay attention to product information Levels of Involvement: From Inertia to Passion • Simple Processing – only the basic features of a message are considered • Elaboration – incoming information is linked to pre-existing knowledge systems • Inertia – decisions are made out of habit because the consumer lacks the motivation to consider alternatives • Flow State – when consumers are truly involved with a product, an ad, or a website • Flow is an optimal experience charac terized by the following: o A sense of playfulness o A feeling of being in control o Concentration and highly focused attention o Mental enjoyment of the activity for its own sake o A distorted sense of tim
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