Poli Sci 2245 - Comparative Poli textbook notes.pdf

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 1021A/B
Bruce Morrison

Poli Sci 2245 Essentials Chapter 1 Comparative politics The study and comparison of domestic politics across countries Institutions Organizations or activities that are selfperpetuating and valued for their own sakeWhat is Comparative Politics Politics struggle in any group for power that will give one or more persons the ability to make decisions for the larger group It is sometimes difficult to tell the difference between power and politics Power ability to influence or impose ones will on others The Comparative Method a way to make comparisons across cases and draw conclusions By comparing countries or subsets between them to come to conclusions and make generalizations that could be valid in other caseInductive reasoning means of going from studying one case to creating a hypothesis Deductive reasoning starting with a puzzle and from there generating some hypothesis about cause and effect which will then be tests against a number of cases You will find a correlationMany variables that can throw off the results in either case That cant be controlled by politicians Instead we resort to sort of controlling these variables by comparing countries that have similar historiesPolitical scientists are also hampered by the small amount of case studies availableAnother problem is their inability to just collect any data to compare and other barriers like languageSelection bias exists They also have to make sure they have CAUSALITYEndogeniety problem of cause and effectCan we make a Science of Comparative Politics Modernization theory as societies developed they would become capital democracies converging around a shared set of values and characteristics By the 20th century political science formally existed as a study Especially during the 2 world wars and the cold warsbehavioral revolution Behavioralism hoped to generate theories and generalizations that could help explain and even predict political activity Ideally this would lead to a grand theory of political behavior and modernization that would be valid across countriesMajor thinkers in comparative politics Aristotle 384322 BCE First separated the study of politics from that of philosophy Used comparative method to study Greek citystates in The Politics conceived of an empirical study of politics with a practical purposeNiccolo Machiavelli 1469Cited as first modern political scientist because of his emphasis on 1527 statecraft and empirical knowledge analyzed diff political systems believing the findings could be applied by statesmen discussed his theories in The Prince Thomas Hobbes 1588Developed the notion of a social contract whereby people surrender 1679 certain liberties in favor of order advocated a powerful state in Leviathan John Locke 16321704 Argued that private property is essential to individual freedom and prosperity advocated a weak state in his Two Treatises of GovernmentCharles Louis de Secondat Studied government systems advocated the separation of powers Baron de Montesquieu within government in The Spirit of Laws 1689 1755 JeanJacques Rousseau Argued that citizens rights are inalienable and cannot be taken away by 17121778 the state influences the development of civil rights discussed these ideas in The Social Contract Karl Marx 18181883 Elaborated a theory of economic development and inequality in his book Das Kapital predicted the eventual collapse of capitalism and democracy Max Weber 18641920 Wrote Widely on such topics as bureaucracy forms of authority and the impact of culture on economic and political development developed many of these themes in Economy and Society Trends in Comparative Politics Traditional Approach Emphasis on describing political systems and their various institutions Behavioral Approach Shift from a descriptive study of politics to one that emphasized causality explanation and prediction places greater emphasis on the political behavior of individuals as opposed to larger political structures and on quantitative over qualitative methodology modernization theory predominant Postbehavioralism Rejection of a grand theory of politics criticism of modernization theory as biased and inaccurate diversity of methods and political approached emphasizing issues such as gender culture environment and globalization
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