MOS 1021 HR Chapter 4 Notes.docx

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Department
Management and Organizational Studies
Course Code
Management and Organizational Studies 1021A/B
Professor
Maria Ferraro

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Chapter 4: Orientation, Training and Development Organizations often compete on competencies - the core sets of knowledge and expertise that give them edge over competitors - As individuals learn (human capital increases) the organization has the potential to learn - Only through individual that the organization gains knowledge Orientation: Formal process of familiarizing new employees with the organization, their jobs, and their work unit and embedding organizational values, beliefs, and accepted behaviors Training: The acquisition of skills, behaviors, and abilities to perform current work Development: The acquisition of skills, behaviors, and abilities to perform future work or to solve an organizational problem - All three has vital role is strengthening human capital in organization - Rapidly changing technologies require employees to continuously hone their competencies to cope with new processes and systems Carefully designed program can be key lever in attracting and retaining key competencies that keep the organizations competitive advantage - Jobs that require little skill are being replaced by jobs that require technical, interpersonal, and problem solving skills - Manager/supervisor plays key role in ensuring that the training and development efforts are appropriate and reinforced for the individuals for whom they are responsible - Without managers involvement, organizational growth, success, and sustainability could be at risk - Trends toward empowerment, total quality management, teamwork, and international business make it necessary for managers as well as employees to develop the skills that will enable them to handle new assignments Approach to Orientation, Training and Development Primary goal of orientation, training, and development is to contribute to the organizations overall goals - Programs should be structured with an eye to organizational goals and strategies - Sometimes fads, fashion, or whatever the competition is doing can be main drivers of an organizations training agenda o Investment can be wasted – training programs often misdirected, poorly designed, inadequately evaluated - Systems approach to training should be used to ensure investments in orientation, training and development have maximum impact on individual and organizational performance - Systems approach involves 4 phases: 1. Needs assessment - Analyze training needs - Identify training objectives and criteria 2. Program design - Pretest trainees - Select training methods - Plan training content 3. Training delivery - Schedule training - Conduct training - Monitor training 4. Evaluation of training - Measure training outcomes - Compare outcome to objectives and criteria The Scope of Orientation, Training and Development Some employee’s come with skills, other need extensive training before they can contribute to organization - Training: Any effort initiated by an organization to foster learning among its members - Training tends to be more focused and oriented toward acquiring skills, behaviors, and abilities to perform current work - Development tends to be more oriented toward acquiring skills, behaviors, and abilities to perform future work or to solve an organizational problem - Learning: An ongoing change in behavior and thinking – which is ultimately the goal of training and development Primary reason organizations train new employees is to bring their KSAs up to level required for satisfactory performance - Consistent training while on job enables employees to be more effective and may be able to perform other jobs in wother areas or at higher levels Investments in Training According to Conference Board of Canada survey: Canadian businesses spend - $852 per employee per year on formal training - Average expenditure in Canada on training and development: 1.8% of payroll - Organizations annually: provide 25 hours of training per employee – a decrease of 10% since 2005 - More than $180 billion spent on informal instruction that goes on every day in organizations everywhere - Training also available on “as needed” basis Training will improve organization performance even in difficult economic times - While there is no enterprise-wide moratorium on training, there is a greater scrutiny on the training expenditures - Compared to earlier economic downturns, organizations are much more supportive of continuing with some training as those organizations believe its worthwhile - Training that has a direct financial return will take precedence over certain types of developments, such as for soft skills - Training can improve employee engagement, which in turn can reduce turnover For training to be effective, employers have to show strong support - Paying for training or encouraging people to increase their skill sets - Currently, about 1/3 of Canadian workforce participates in job related training Study shows that in recessionary times it is even more important to provide growth and development opportunities for employees - Organizations may lose commitment of employees that will directly effect the financial performance of the organization - If training dollars need to be cut, do so in surgical fashion and determine where the dollars are best spent Systematic Orientation, Training and Development Phase 1: Conducting the Needs Assessment Managers and HR professionals should be alert about kinds of training needed - If worker consistently fails to achieve productivity objectives, might signal training is needed - Excessive number of customer complaints might suggest inadequate training Needs assessment can occur at - Organizational level: examining environment and strategy of the company to see where training emphasis ought to occur - Task level: reviewing the activities of the work to determine the competencies needed - Person level: reviewing which employees need training Needs assessment can by done by asking 4 questions: 1. How important is this issue to the success of the organization? If it is important, then answer next 3 questions 2. What competencies or knowledge, skills and abilities do employees need? 3. What competencies or knowledge, skills and abilities do employees currently have? 4. What is the gap between the desired (need) and the actual (have)? Other training issues tend to revolve around the strategic initiatives of an organization - Mergers and acquisitions frequently require that employees take on new roles and responsibilities and adjust to new cultures and ways of conducting business - Other issues, such as technological change, globalization, re-engineering, and total quality management, all influence the way work is done and types of skills needed to do it - Organizations restructuring, downsizing, empowerment, and teamwork have immediate training requirements - Employees value self development and personal growth, and with this has come enormous desire for learning - As older workers may decide to postpone retirement, training will need to be done for a variety of different generations Important that supervisor or manager be knowledgeable about organizations needs, requirement of the work, capabilities of the person in order to assess that training is the right solution - Training efforts (and dollars) can be wasted if supervisor hasn’t adequately determined whether training is appropriate - If poor performance due to ability problems, training is good intervention - Is poor performance is due to poor motivation or factors outside employees control, training may not be answer - Managers have to sit down with employees and talk about areas for improvement so they can jointly determine the training and developmental approaches that will have maximum benefit Phase 2: Designing the Training Program Once training needs have been determined, next step is to design (or buy) appropriate training programs - Success of training programs depend on more than organizations ability to identify training needs - Success hinges on taking information gained from needs analysis and utilizing it to design first-rate training programs Experts believe training design should focus on: 1. Instructional objectives 2. Trainee readiness and motivation 3. Principles of learning 4. Characteristic of instructors Instructional Objectives Instructional Objectives: Desired outcomes of a training program: the skills and knowledge the company wants people to have and the behaviors the employees should acquire and/or change - Use information from needs analysis (company training needs) to state desired outcomes of training - Example: “employees will be able to demonstrate the following skills within 6 months:….” Managers will seek external resources to design the training program and write the learning objectives - Done with guidance of manager - Important for managers to be able to describe what they want person to do or how they want person to act after completing training program Trainee Readiness and Motivation Trainee Readiness: Both maturity and experience factors in the trainees background - 2 preconditions for learning affect success of those receiving training: readiness and motivation - Prospective trainees should be screened to determine that they have background knowledge and skills necessary to absorb what will be presented to them - For optimum learning, trainees must recognize need for new knowledge or skills, and must maintain desire to learn as training progresses By focusing on trainees themselves rather than trainer or training topic, managers can create training environment that is conducive to learning. 6 strategies can be essential: 1. Use positive reinforcement 2. Eliminate threats and punishment 3. Be flexible 4. Have participants set personal goals 5. Design interest instruction 6. Break down physical and psychological obstacles to learning Training objectives clearly related to a trainees individual needs will increase motivation of employees to succeed in training programs - Manager plays vital role in ensuring that training is suitable for the person and that the person is ready to take on training initiative Principles of Learning As move from needs assessment and instructional objectives to employee readiness and motivation, we are shifting from focus on organization to focus on employee - Training has to build bridge between employees and organization - Important step in this transition is giving full consideration to psychological principles of learning (characteristics of training programs that help employees grasp new material, make sense of it in their own lives, and transfer back to job) Because the success or failure of training program is frequently related to certain principles of learning, it is important to incorporate the following principles of learning: - Goal Setting: It is important that the goals and objectives for the training are clear - Individual Differences: People learn at different rates and in different ways - Active Practice and Repetition: Trainees should be given frequent opportunity to practice their job tasks in the way that they will ultimately be expected to perform them - Whole-Versus-Part Learning: Most jobs and tasks can be broken down into parts that lend themselves to further analysis. Determining the most effective manner for completing each part then provides a basis for giving specific instruction - Massed-Versus-Distributed Learning: Another factor that determines effectiveness of training is amount of time devoted to practice in one session. Should trainees be given training in 5 2-hour periods or in 10 1-hour periods? It has been found in most cases that spacing out the training will result in faster learning and longer retention - Feedback and Reinforcement: Some feedback comes from self-monitoring while other feedback comes from trainers, fellow trainees, and the like. As an employees training progresses, feedback serves 2 related purposes: 1) knowledge of results, and 2) motivation - Meaningfulness of Presentation: Material to be learned must be presented in as meaningful a manner as possible so that the trainees can connect the training with things that are already familiar to them - Modeling: We learn by watching o Behavior Modification: Technique that if behavior is rewarded (positive reinforcement) it will be exhibited more frequently in the future Characteristics of Trainers Success of any training activity depend on skills and personal characteristics of those responsible for conducting training - Good trainers, whether staff persons or line managers, need to be knowledgeable about subject, well prepared, have good communication skills, be enthusiastic with sense of humor Phase 3: Implementing the Training Program Major consideration in choosing among various training methods is determining which ones are appropriate fro the KSAs to be learned - If material is mostly factual, lecture, classroom, or programmed instruction may be fine - If training involves behavioral component, on the job training, stimulation, or interactive video training might work better Training and Development Methods New methods of training and development have emerged over years as result of greater understanding of human behavior, particularly in area of learning, motivation and interpersonal relationships - Technological advances, especially in computer hardware and software have resulted in training devices that are more effective and economical than the traditional training methods 1. On the Job Training On-the-Job Training (OJT): Method by which employees are given hands on experience with instruction from their supervisor or other trainer - Most common used method for training employees - Advantage of hands on experience, and ability for trainer – manager or senior employee – to build relationships with new employees - During economic slowdown, OJT viewed by some to be potentially most cost effective means of facilitating learning in work place Although all types of organizations use it, OJT is most poorly implemented training methods. 3 common drawbacks include: 1. Lack of well structured training environment 2. Poor training skills of managers 3. Absence of well defined job performance criteria To over come these problems, training experts suggest: 1. Develop realistic goals and/or measures for each OTJ area 2. Plan a specific training schedule for each trainee, including set periods for evaluation and feedback 3. Help managers to establish a non threatening atmosphere conducive to learning 4. Ensure that there are mechanisms to monitor and evaluate training programs 2. Apprenticeship Training Apprenticeship Training: When individuals entering an industry (particularly in skilled trades such as machinist, laboratory technician, or electrician) are given through instruction and experience, both on and off the job, in the practical and theoretical aspects of the work - Some paid apprenticeship 3. Cooperative Training and Internship Programs Cooperative Training: Training program that combines practical on the job experience with formal education - Typically offered at universities, where students work for an entire semester as part of their education - While they don’t get course credit, they graduate with an indication that they’ve been involved in co-op program - Gives ability to demonstrate to prospective employers that they have work experience - Many colleges allow students o earn college credits on basis of successful job performance and fulfillment of established program requirements Internship Programs: Programs jointly sponsored by colleges, universities, and other organizations that offer students the opportunity to gain real-life experience while allowing them to find out how they will perform in work organizations 4. Classroom Instructions Classroom Instruction: Enables the maximum number of trainees to be handled by the minimum number of instructors - Good when information can be presented in lectures, demonstrations, films, and videotapes or through computer instruction Special type of classroom facility used in vestibule training - Trainees are given instruction in operation of equipment like that found in operating departments - Emphasis is on instruction - Check out clerk in supermarket first learns how to use cash register 5. Self-Directed Learning Self Directed Learning: Occurs when individuals work at their own pace at programmed instruction - Typically involves use of books, manuals, or computer to break down subject matter content into highly organized, logical sequences that demand continuous response on the part of the trainee 6. Audio-Visual Audio Visual: Methods that are used to teach the skills and procedures required for a number of jobs - Gold and tennis coaches suing video or camcorders so that their students can see their mistakes - Video conferencing has also been successful in connecting First Nations communities in remote areas so that they can learn from each other 7. Simulation Simulation: Used when it is either impractical or unwise to train employees on the actual equipment used on the job - Training to operate aircraft, spacecraft, and other highly technical and expensive equipment - Simulation method provides realism in equipment and operation - National Post used simulation to train new workforce by requiring them to produce mock newspaper with real content and headlines 8. E-Learning E-Learning: Covers a wide variety of applications such as Web-based and computer based training (CBT) and virtual classrooms - The simpler, audiovisual, programmed, and computer oriented training methods just discussed are evolving into what trainers today describe as e-learning - Induces delivery of content via Internet, intranets and extranets, audiotape, videotape, satellite and broadcast interactive TV, DVD, and CD-ROM - Makes it possible to provide drill and practice, problem solving, simulation, gaming forms of instruction, and certain very sophisticated forms of individualized instruction in a way that’s more engaging for learners than traditional classroom instruction - Also cheaper for employers because it can be delivered directly via the employees computer Companies report saving anywhere from 30% to 70% of their training costs by using e-learning - Industry Canada says 98% of employees said e-learning helped them reach their personal development goals - 83% of employees said e-learning increased their productivity - Also, systems available that can track progress of learners E-learning also allows employees to search through sea of information in order to customize their own learning in their own time and space - Companies demanding access to individual training components for employees to use when and where they need them o Helps alleviate boredom trainees can experience during full blown training courses, and employees are more likely to retain the information when they can immediately put it to use Many e-learning training programs use existing applications employees are familiar with such as PowerPoint, Word, Adobe Acrobat and convert them into Flash programs so they can be easily viewed online with any Web browser - Web based training can also be revised rapidly, thereby providing continuous updated training material - Makes it easier and cheaper to revise training curricula, but also saves travel and classroom costs - When combined with other communications technology such as e-mail, teleconferencing, videoconferencing, and groupware, Web-based training can be even more effective Catch: Requires some planning so that both employees on-site, connecting through high speed corporate Internet connections, and employees of-site, with wireless modems ro slow connections, are able to access the training material - To cope with limitation, companies frequently supply their off-site staff with CDs and DVDs containing the same training material employees on-site are able to download 9. On-The-Job Experiences On the job experiences present managers with opportunity to perform under pressure and to learn from their mistakes - Some of the most powerful and commonly used techniques - On the job training for first level employees can be problematic if not well planned - On the job management development should be well organized, supervised, and challenging to participants Methods of providing on the job experience include the following: 1. Coaching: Involves a continuing flow of instructions, comments, and suggestions from the manager to the subordinate 2. Mentoring: Usually involves an informal relationship in which an executive coaches, advises and encourages a more junior employee - Some organizations have formal mentorship program in which some one being considered for upward movement is assigned to another employee in the organization - A good mentor will focus on goals, opportunities, expectations, and standards and assist people in fulfilling their potential 3. Understudy Assignments: Groom an individual to take over a managers job by helping the individual gain experience in handling important functions of the job 4. Job Rotation: Provides, through a variety of work experiences, the broadened knowledge and understanding required to manage more effectively 5. Lateral Transfer: Involves horizontal movement through different departments, along with upward movement in the organization 6. Special Projects and Junior Boards: Provide an opportunity for individuals to become involved in the study of current organizational problems and in planning and decision making activities 7. Action Learning: Gives managers release time to work full time on projects with other in the organization - In some cases, action learning is combined with classroom instruction, discussions, and conferences 8. Staff Meetings: Enable participants to become more familiar with problems and events occurring outside their immediate areas by exposing them to the ideas and thinking of other managers 9. Planned Career Progressions: Utilize all these different methods to provide employees with the training and development necessary to progress through a series of jobs requiring higher and higher levels of knowledge and/or skills - Reports that the most effective form of training for businesses of fewer than 50 employees is on the job coaching 10. Seminars and Conferences Seminars and Conferences: Useful for bringing groups of people together for training and development - In management development, seminars and conferences can be sued to communicated ideas, policies, or procedures, but they are also good for raising points of debate or discussing issues that have no set answers or resolutions - Seminars and conferences often used when attitude change is a goal 11. Case Studies Case studies: Use documented examples, which may have been developed from the actual experiences of participants in their own organizations - Cases help managers learn how to analyze (take part) and synthesize (put together) facts, become conscious of the many variable on which management decisions are based, and, in general, improve their decision making skills 12. Management Games Management Games: Valuable for bringing a hypothetical situation to life and provide experiential learning - Many games have been designed for general use - TD Bank uses game to encourage more open communication, to increase levels of team performance etc. 13. Role Playing Role Playing: Consists of assuming the attitudes and behaviors – playing the role – of others, often a supervisor and a subordinate who are involved in a particular problem - By acting out another persons position, participants in the role playing can improve thri ability to understand and cope with others - Can also help participants learn how to counsel other by helping them see situations from a different point of view - Used widely in training health care professional to be empathetic and sensitive to the concerns of patients - Also used widely in training managers to handle employee issues relating to absenteeism, performance appraisal, and conflict situations Phase 4: Evaluating the Training Program Training should be evaluated to determine its effectiveness - A variety of methods are available to assess t he extent to which training and development programs improve learning, affect behavior on the job, and have an impact on the bottom-line performance of an organization - Few organizations adequately evaluate their training programs - Given the substantial monetary stake that organizations have in training, it is prudent that managers would want to maximize the return on their investment Four methods to evaluate training: 1. Reactions 2. Learning 3. Behavior 4. Results - Some are easier to measure than other, but each is important in that is provides different information about the success of the programs - Combination of these ca
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