MOS 3321G- Ch 7 Attitudes.docx

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 1021A/B
Beth Lee

Chapter 7: Attitudes Attitude: a lasting general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects or issues • Tends to endure over time, applies to more than a momentary event Attitude Object (A): Anything toward which a person has an attitude whether it is tangible (ex. Vodka) or intangible (drunk driving) Functional Theory of Attitudes: by Psychologist Daniel Katz • Attitudes facilitate social behaviour • They exist because they serve some function for the person and are determined by a person’s motives • If consumer expects to deal with similar info at future time, they will form attitudes in anticipation • Marketer wants to know why attitude held before changing it • Attitude functions: o Utilitarian Function: related to reward/punishment  Develop attitude towards product based on whether it provides pleasure or pain  Ex. Drink Diet Coke “just for the taste of it” o Value Expressive Function: express consumer’s central values or self-concept  Formed because of what product says about him/her as a person, not objective benefit  Highly relevant to lifestyle analyses (clusters of AIO’s to express particular social identity)  Ex. What sort of man rides a Harley? o Ego-Defensive Function: attitudes formed to protect the person from external threats or internal feelings  Ex. “Macho” image appeals to insecurities of masculinity o Knowledge Function: attitudes formed as result of need for order, structure or meaning  Predominant when consumer in ambiguous situation or confronted with new product • Attitude can serve +1 function, but marketers must ID dominant function (benefit provided) and emphasize it in communications and packaging o Can heighten preference for ad AND product Varying Levels of Commitment: • Example: Study of Football game attendees shows 3 distinct clusters of fans: o #1: Diehard fans, enduring love of game  Marketers should focus on providing greater sport knowledge and relate attendance to persona goals and values o #2: “Brand Switchers”, Fair-weather fans  Unique Self-Expressiveness of game, stimulated by cheering and drama of competition itself  Marketers should focus on advertising appearance of stars coming to town that may deliver game to be remembered o #3: Camaraderie Above All  Attend game for pre/post game parties 1  Marketers should focus on improved parking, unit-pricing and other “peripheral benefits” The ABC Model of Attitudes • Example: Subaru buyers had few emotional connections to it, BUT Subaru owners had great passion and love for brand, therefore new campaign of heart (love of Subaru), head (rational side of specific car models) and wallet (actual buying; local dealer offers) • An attitude has 3 different components: o Affect: Way consumer feels about an attitude object (A) o Behaviour: Connotation or person’s intention to do something with regard to A (intention doesn’t always result in actual behaviour) o Cognition: beliefs consumer has about A • Hierarchy of Effects: relative impact of three components and fixed sequence of steps that occur en route to an attitude • High Involvement Hierarchy: consumer decision is problem solving process o 1: forms beliefs by accumulating knowledge (belief) o 2: Evaluates beliefs to form feelings about product (affect) o 3: Consumer engages in relevant behaviour (ex. Buying) o Often results in brand loyalty because consumer is highly involved and bonds with product through seeking a lot of info and coming to thoughtful decision • Low Involvement Hierarchy: o 1: consumer collects minimal information (belief) o 2: acts on basis of limited information because no strong preference for brand (behaviour) o 3: emotional response only after consuming, evaluation after the fact (affect) o Choice is reinforced by good or bad experiences after purchase o Consumer swayed by principles of behavioural learning (ex. Simple response to conditioned brand name or point of purchase display)  Not motivated by complex brand info  Involvement Paradox: less important the product, more important marketing stimuli like packages, jingles, etc. 2 • Zajonc’s Model of Hedonic Consumption: aka. Experiential hierarchy of Effects o 1: Emotional Reaction influenced by product attributes irrelevant to actual product quality (ex. Design, colour) (Affect) o 2: Consumers act on basis of emotional reaction of hedonic motivations (how it feels or how much fun it provides) (Behaviour) o 3: Mood a person is in when exposed to marketing message influences how ad is processed, remembered, and how person feels about ad and product in the future (Belief)  Emotional Contagion: messages delivered by happy people enhance attitude toward product Product Attitudes Don’t Tell Whole Story • People form attitudes towards objects other than the product itself • Attitude toward the Advertisement (Aad) o Predisposition to respond in a favourable or unfavourable manner to a particular advertising stimulus during a particular exposure occasion o Determinants include: viewer’s attitude toward advertiser, evaluations of ad execution, mood evoked, context ad appears in (ex. While watching fav TV show) o Effects: emphasize importance of ad entertainment value, can ad be viewed again (if not then lower belief and attitude confidence) • Feelings Generated by Ads o Affect brand attitudes and influenced both by way ad is executed and consumer’s reaction to ad o 3 Emotional Dimensions: pleasure, arousal and intimidation o Specific Types of Feelings:  Upbeat Feelings: amused, delighted, playful  Warm Feelings: affectionate, contemplative, hopeful  Negative Feelings: critical, defiant, offended Forming Attitudes • Can be formed in several ways depending on hierarchy of effects in operation • Classical Conditioning: A is repeatedly paired with catchy jingle (ex. A of McD’s name paired with “I’m Lovin It”) • Instrumental Conditioning: consumption of A is reinforced (ex. Pepsi quenches thirst) • Learning of an attitude is outcome of complex cognitive Process (ex. Teen models behaviour of friends and media by drinking Red Bull to allow her to fit in with desirable image of Millennial generation) Levels of Commitment to Attitude: • Degree of commitment related to level of involvement with A o Compliance: lowest level of involvement, helps gain rewards or avoid punishments from others, very superficial 3 o Identification: consumer will feel similar to another person or group; depicts social consequences of choosing some product over others; consumers imitate behaviour of desirable models o Internalization: high level of involvement, deep seated attitudes are internalized and become part of person’s value system; difficult to change The Consistency Principle • Principle of Cognitive Consistency: consumer value harmony among their thoughts, feelings and behaviours and they are motivated to maintain uniformity among these elements Theory of Cognitive Dissonance • When a person is confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes or behaviours, he or she will take some action to resolve this “dissonance” by changing an attitude or modifying behaviour o Motivated to reduce negative feelings o Dissonance reduction can occur by eliminating, adding or changing elements o This theory explains why “Post-purchase dissonance” (evaluation of product increasing after purchase made) o Example: 2 Cognitive Elements: “I know smoking causes cancer” (1) and “I some cigarettes” (2) are dissonant.  To reduce dissonance: 1) stop smoking (“eliminate”) or 2) Remember your aunt who smoked her whole life and was okay (“add element”) o Consumers seek support for purchase decisions so marketers should supply additional reinforcement to build positive brand attitudes Self Perception Theory • Assumes people use observations of their own behaviour to determine what their attitudes are • Maintain consistency by inferring that we must have a positive attitude toward an object if we have bought or consumer it (assuming free will) • Most relevant to “low involvement hierarchy” (because behaviour performed in absence of strong internal attitude) • Helps explain some sales strategies: o Foot in the door technique: consumer more likely to comply with request if he/she has first agreed to comply with a smaller request  Important factors: time lag, similarity and whether same person made requests o Low-ball technique: ask for small favour and informed after agreeing that it will be more costly o Door in the face technique: first ask extreme request (usually refused) then ask something smaller which is usually accepted because they feel guilt Social Judgement Theory • People assimilate new information in light of what they already know or feel • Initial frame of reference and new information is categorized and we develop a subjective standard • People differ in terms of the information they will find acceptable or unacceptable o Latitudes of acceptance and rejection: an attitude standard  Ideas that fall within latitude will be favourably received and seen as more consistent with own position then they actually are (assimilation effect) 4  Ideas falling outside this zone will be unfavourably received and in latitude of rejection; seen as even farther from our own position (contrast effect)  The more involved a consumer is with A the smaller her latitude of acceptance gets Balance Theory • Relations among elements a person might perceiv
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