Chapter 6: Personality
Personality: A person’s unique psychological makeup, which consistently influences the way the person
responds to his or her environment
• Personality has proven to be difficult to apply in a marketing context, in part because people’s
personalities are often situational-specific rather than stable.
Lifestyles: Patterns of consumption reflecting a person’s choices of how he or she spends time and
• A person’s self-concept, ethnicity, social class can all be used as the raw ingredients to build a
Aspects of the Freudian Theory:
The Id: System in the mind which operates according to the pleasure principle.
• Maximize pleasure and avoid pain
• Immediate gratification
• “Party Animal” of the mind
The Superego: Counterweight to the Id.
• Essentially the conscience
• Works to prevent the Id from seeking selfish gratification
The Ego: System that mediates between the two other system according to the reality principle.
• Gratifies the Id in a way that will be acceptable to the outside world
• Occurs at an unconscious level
Motivational Research: Largely based on psychoanalytical (Freudian) interpretations, with a heavy
emphasis on unconscious motives.
• Uses in-depth interviews.
• Few Participants with deep questions vs. Many participants with general questions
o Too manipulative (too good)
o Lacks validity since interpretations are subjective and indirect (not good) • Benefits:
o Cost Effective: Interviewing and data-processing costs are very minimal
o Providing insights: Helps develop marketing communications
o Intuitive sense: Some findings seem intuitively plausible after the fact. (Ex, Coffee is
associated with companionship)
Neo- Freudian Theories are based off social relationships. Our social environment affects how our
Horney’s CAD Theory:
• C = Compliant Individual – Desires to be loved, wanted, appreciated
• A = Aggressive Individual – One who moves against others
• D = Detached Individual – One who moves against others
Developed using the central theory of collective unconscious, which is a storehouse of memories
inherited from our ancestral past.
• These shared memories create archetypes. (Ex. People may exhibit a fear of the dark because
their ancestors had good reason to exhibit this fear)
• Archetypes involve themes, such as birth, death or the devil that appear frequently in myths,
stories and dreams
• The BrandAsset Archetypes: This was developed by the BrandAsset Valuator group in 2000 to
measure brand personality. The personality is then determined to be healthy or unhealthy in
conjunction with the BAV Brand Health measure.
Trait Theory focuses on the quantitative measurement of traits, or the identifiable characteristics that
define a person.
Traits relevant to consumer behaviour:
• Innovativeness: The degree to which a person likes to try new things
o Value being different, open minded and need stimulation
• Materialism: The amount of emphasis place on acquiring and owing products
o Value possessions, status, showing off o Materialists believe TV commercial products are more realistic
• Need for cognition: The degree to which a person likes to think about things
o Enjoy products with learning curves and mastery
o Respond more favorably to written ads and are less affected by message framing
• Self consciousness: The degree to which a person deliberately monitors and controls the image
of self projected to others.
Idiocentrics: Have an individualist orientation
Allocentrics: Have a group orientation.
By comparison, idiocentrics are more likely to:
• Be more satisfied
• Eat less healthy foods
• Spend less time in the kitchen
• Be workaholics
• Travel often.
Problems with Trait Theory:
There has been mixed success at best with the use of standard personality-trait measurements to predict
product choices. Some of the reasons for its failure include:
• Many of the scales are not sufficiently valid or reliable
• Personality tests are often developed for specific populations
• Tests may not be properly administered
• The researchers often make changes to adapt the instruments to their own situation
• Many trait scales are intended to measure gross, overall tendencies
Brand Personality: A brand personality is a set of traits people attribute to a product as if it were a
person. (Ex. Jolly Green Giant, Mr. Peanut)
Brand Equity: The extent to which consumers hold strong, favourable, and unique associations with a
• Refers to our feelings about a brand’s personality. • Explains why people are more willing to seek out a branded product vs. a generic one.
Aninism: The practice whereby inanimate objects are given qualities which make them seem alive. There
are two levels of animism
• Level 1: The object is believed to be possessed by the soul of the being. A brand may be strongly
associated with a loved one. (Grandmother always served Kraft blueberry jam)