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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 1023A/B

Chapter 5 Orientation, Training, And Development Introduction  Orientation 迎新  Formal process of familiarizing 熟悉 new employees with the organization, their jobs, and their work unit and embedding 嵌入 organizational values, beliefs, and accepted behaviours.  Training  The acquisition of skills, behaviors, and abilities to perform current work.  Development  The acquisition of skills, behaviors, and abilities to perform future work or to solve an organizational problem. Approach to orientation, training, and development  System approach involves four phases: (1) need assessment, (2) program design, (3) training delivery, and (4) evaluation of training. The scope of orientation, training, and development Investments in training  $852 per employee each year on formal training  About 25 hours of training per person.  Organizations are also providing training on an “as need” basis and ensuring that it is linked to actual work experiences. Systematic orientation, training, and development Phase 1: Conducting and need assessment  If workers consistently fail to achieve productivity objectives, or the organizations receive an excessive number of customer complaints, suggest training.  The need assessment 需求评估 can occur at the organizational level (examining the environment and strategy of the company to see where training emphasis ought to occur) the task level (reviewing the activities of the work to determine the competencies needed); and the person level (reviewing which employees need training.) Phase 2: Designing the training program 1. Instructional objectives 教学目标  The skills and knowledge the company wants people to have and the behaviours employees should acquire and/or change. 2. Trainee readiness and motivation  Trainee readiness  The consideration of a trainee’s maturity 成熟 and experience when assessing him or her.  Trainee motivation  Trainees must recognize the need for new knowledge or skills, and they must maintain a desire to learn as training progresses. 3. Principle of learning  Goal setting  Individual differences  Active practice and repetition  Whole-versus-part learning  Massed 集中-versus-distributed learning  In most cases that spacing out 分割 the time of training will result in faster learning and longer retention.  Feedback and reinforcement  As an employee’s training progresses, feedback serves two related purposes: (1) knowledge of results, and (2) motivation.  Meaningfulness of presentation  Materials must connect the training with things that are already familiar to them.  Modeling  Behaviour modification  Technique that if behaviour is rewards it will be exhibited more frequently in the future.  Positively reinforced, behaviours will be exhibited more frequently in the future, whereas behavior that is penalized or unrewarded will decrease in frequency. 4. Characteristics of trainers  Good trainers need to be knowledgeable about the subject, be well-prepared, have good communication skills, and be enthusiastic with a sense of humor. Phase 3: Implementing the training program Training and development methods  On-the-job training  Method by which employees are given hands-on experience with instructions from their supervisor or other trainer.  Advantage  Providing hands-on experience under normal working conditions  An opportunity for the trainer--- a manager or senior employee--- to build good relationships with new employees.  OJT is often one of the most poorly implemented training methods. Three common drawbacks include (1) the lack of well-structured training environment, (2) poor training skills of managers, and (3) the absence of well-defined job performance criteria 缺乏良好的工作业绩标准.  Apprenticeship training 学徒培训  System of training in which a worker entering the skilled trades is given thorough 全面 的 instruction and experience, both on and off the job, in the practical and theoretical aspects of the work.  Cooperative training and internship programs  Cooperative training 合作培训  Training program that combines practical on-the-job experience with formal education (offered at university)  Internship program 实习计划  Programs jointly sponsored 主办的 by colleges, universities, and other organizations that offers students the opportunity to gain real-life experience while allowing them to find out how they will perform in work organizations.  Organizations benefit by getting student-employees with new ideas, energy, and eagerness to accomplish their assignments.  Classroom instruction  Enables the maximum number of trainees to be handled by the minimum number of instructors.  Self-directed learning  Occurs when individuals work at their own pace at programmed instruction.  Audio-visual  Methods are used to teach the skills and procedures required for a number of jobs.  Simulation 模仿  Used when it is either impractical 不切实际的 or unwise 不智慧的 to train employees on the actual equipment used on the job.  An obvious example is training employees to operate aircraft航空器, spacecraft航天器, and other highly technical and expensive equipment.  E-learning  Cheaper for employers to administer.  Saving anywhere from 30% to 70% of their training costs.  Own learning in their own time and space.  Saves travel and classroom costs.  Companies frequently supply their off-site staff with CDs and DVDs containing the same training material employees on-site are able to download.  On-the-job experiences  Methods of providing on-the-job experience include the following: a) Coaching b) Mentoring 指导  Involves an informal relationship in which an executive coaches, advises, and encourages a more junior employee. c) Understudy 替补 assignments  Take over a manager’s job by helping the individual gain experience. d) Job rotation 工作轮换  Provide a variety of work experiences, the broadened knowledge and understanding required to manage more effectively. e) Lateral transfer 横向转移  Involves horizontal movement through different departments, along with upward movement in the organization. f) Special projects and junior boards 小型董事会  Involved in the study of current organizational problems and in planning and decision-making activities. g) Action learning  Gives managers relea
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