Chapter 5 theories of work motivation.docx

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Victoria Digby

Chapter 5: Theories of Work Motivation Why Study motivation? Motivation makes people work harder and productivity goes up A good set of theories should recognize human diversity and consider that the same conditions will not motivate everyone What is motivation? The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal. From an organizational perspective, when a person is motivated usually mean that the person works hard, keeps at their work and directs their behaviour toward appropriate outcomes Basic characteristics of motivation Effort: the amount of effort the person exhibits on the job Persistence: individuals consistently exhibit in applying effort to their work tasks Direction: quality of person’s work. The direction of the person’s work-related behaviour. Does the behaviour benefit the organization Goals: all motivated behaviour has some goal or objective toward which it is directed. Ex. High productivity, good attendance Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic: Motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task; it is usually self-applied. Feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge and competence Extrinsic: Stems from the work environment external to the task; it is usually applied by others. Pay, fringe benefits, company policies, and various forms of supervision. Some motivators have both intrinsic and extrinsic qualities Self-determination theory: A theory of motivation that considers whether people’s motivation is autonomous or controlled. When people are motivated by intrinsic factors, they are in control of their motivation (autonomous motivation) When people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward their motivation is controlled externally (controlled motivation) A Key aspect of SDT is the extent to which one’s motivation is autonomous versus controlled Extrinsic motivators can reduce the intrinsic motivation stemming from the task itself. Both kinds of rewards are compatible in enhancing work. Motivation and performance Performance: the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of said organization Mental ability (intelligence) does predict performance. Two forms of intelligence are 1. General cognitive ability 2. Emotional intelligence General cognitive ability A person’s basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources (intelligence or mental ability). Predicts learning and training success as well as job performance in all kinds of jobs and occupations. Emotional intelligence The ability to understand and manage one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions. Individuals high in EI are able to identify and understand the meanings of emotions and to manage and regulate their emotions as a basis for problem solving, reasoning, thinking and action Peter Salovey and John Mayer developed an EI model that consists of four interrelated sets of skills 1. Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others: ex. Accurately identify emotions in people’s faces and in non-verbal behaviour 2. Using emotions to facilitate thinking: able to use emotions in functional ways, such as making decisions and other cognitive processes (creativity, integrative thinking, inductive reasoning) 3. Understanding emotions, emotional language and the signals conveyed by emotions: people understand how different situations and events generate emotions as well as how they and others are infuenced by various emotions… don’t ask someone in a bad mood for a favour until they are in a good mood 4. Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals: highest level of EI because it requires one to have mastered the previous stages. Able to regulate, adjust and change his or her own emotions as well as others’ emotions to suit the situations. Being able to stay calm when feeling angry or upset EI predicts performance in a number of areas including job performance and academic performance. The motivation-performance relationship - Performance can be low with high motivation - Can be low with high EI general Cog. Etc because you don’t understand the task or luck and chance factors that can damage theperformance Need Theories of work motivation Need theories: motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance Needs are physiological and psychological wants or desires NEEDS  BEHAVIOUR  INCENTIVES AND GOALS Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: a five-level hierarchical need theory of motivation that specifies that the lowest-level unsatisfied need has the greatest motivating potential Abraham maslow said humans have five sets of needs 1. Physiological needs: needs that must be satisfied for the person to survive (food, water, oxygen and shelter) 2. Safety needs: needs for security, freedom from anxiety and a structured and ordered environment 3. Belongingness needs: needs for social interaction, affection, love, companionship and friendship 4. Esteem needs: needs for feeling of adequacy, competence, independence, strength and confidence and the appreciation and recognition of these characteristics by others. 5. Self-actualization needs: the desire to develop one’s true potential as an individual and to express one’s skill, talents and emotions in a manner that is most personally fulfilling Individuals are motivated to satisfy theier physiological needs before they reveal an interest in safety needs and safety must be satisfied before social needs become motivational and so on. However, when needs at a particular level are sastisfied, the individual turns his or her attention to the next higher level.. (satisfied need is no longer an effective motivator) Alderfer’s ERG theory Clayton Alderfer developed the ERG theory: a three-level hierarchical need theory of motivation (existence, relatedness, growth) that allows for movement up and down the hierarchy 1. Existence needs: satisfied by some material substance or condition (food, shelter, pay, and safe working conditions) 2. Relatedness needs: satisfied by open communication and the exchange of thoughts and feelings with other organizational members. Satisfied by open, accurate , honest interaction rather tha by uncritical pleasantness 3. Growth needs: are fulfilled by strong personal involvement in the work setting. Full utilization of one’s skills and abilityies and the creative development of new skills and abilities ERG does not assume that a lower-level need MUST be gratified before a less concrete need becomes operative. And does not propose a rigid hierarchy of needs. Assumes that if the higher-level needs are ungratified, individuals will increase their desire for gratification of lower-level needs.\ Two major motivational premises of ERG : 1. More lower-level needs are gratified, the more higher-level need satisfaction is desired 2. Less higher-level needs are gratified, the more lower-level need satisfaction is desired McClelland’s theory of needs A nonhierarchical need theory of motivation that outlines the conditions under which certain needs result in particular patterns of motivation Needs reflect relatively stable personality characteristics that one acquires through early life experiences and exposure to selected aspects of one’s society. Concerned with the specific behavioural consequences of needs. Needs for achievement: a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well Characteristics - A preference for situations in which personal responsibility can be taken for outcomes. - A tendency to set moderately difficult goals that provide for calculated risks - A desire for performance feedback Concerned with bettering their own performance or that of others. Done because intrinsically satisfying Needs for affiliation: a strong desire to establish and maintain friendly, compatible
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