Chapter 1 - Organization Behaviour and Management.docx

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Meredith Woodwark

Chapter 1- Organization Behaviour and Management Organization: social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort  Social inventions – the coordinated presence of people; about understanding people and managing them effectively  Accomplishing common goals – organizational survival and adaptation to change are important group goals; how organizations can survive and adapt to change  Group effort – interaction and coordination among people to accomplish goals; how to get people to practice effective teamwork Organizational behaviour: refers to the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations  Field of organized behaviour about understanding people and managing them to work effectively  How organizations can survive and adapt to change  Based on group effort  Depend on interaction and coordination among people to accomplish their goals  Concerned with how to get people to practice effective teamwork Why Study OB?  Interesting – about people and its human nature  Important – what happens in organizations has a profound impact on people  Impactful – main factor that differentiates organizations is their human capital or workforce Goals of Organizational Behaviour - Predict – there is considerable interest in predicting when people will make ethical decisions, create innovative products or engage in sexual harassment; the very regularity of behaviour in organizations permits the prediction of its future occurrence; field of organizational behaviour provides a scientific foundation that helps improve predictions of organizational events - Explain – why do certain events occur? - Managing – a variety of management styles may be effective depending on the situation at hand; taking action Management  The art of getting things done in organizations through other people Early Prescriptions Concerning Management Classical Viewpoint – Weber, Taylor and Fayol  Advocates a very high degree of specialization of labour and coordination  Each department tends to its own affairs  Centralized decision making from upper management providing coordination  To maintain control managers are to have fairly few workers except in lower level jobs Scientific Management - Taylorism  Fredrick Taylor  Advocates the use of careful research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization  Supports use of written instructions to clearly define work procedures  Encouraged supervisors to standardize workers movements and breaks for maximum efficiency  “Functional foremanship” – supervisors specialize in particular functions Bureaucracy  Max Weber  Strict chain of command in which each member reports to only a single superior  Criteria for selection and promotion based on technical skills rather than nepotism or favouritism  Set of detailed rules, regulations and procedures ensuring that the job gets done regardless of who the specific worker is  Use of strict specialization to match duties with technical competence  Centralization of power at top of organization The Human Relations Movement/Critique of Bureaucracy  Began by Hawthorne studies; concerned with impact of fatigue, rest pauses, and lighting or productivity however researchers began to notice effects of psychological and social processes on productivity and work adjustment  Strict specialization incompatible with human needs for growth and achievement; can lead to employee alienation from organization and its clients  Strong centralization and reliance on formal authority fails to take advantage of the creative ideas and knowledge of lower-lever members who are closer to the customer o Organizations fail to learn from their mistakes, threatens innovations and adaptation  Strict, impersonal rules lead members to adopt minimum acceptable level of performance that the rules specify  Strong specialization causes employees to lose sight of the overall goals of the organization Contemporary Management – The Contingency Approach  Management approaches need to be tailored for each situation  Answer to many of the problems in organizations: “it depends”  Contingency approach recognizes that there is no one best way to manage and that an appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situation o Effectiveness of a leadership style is contingent on the abilities of the followers and the consequence of a pay increase is partly contingent on the need for money What Do Managers Do? Managerial Roles – Henry Mintzberg discovered a rather complex set of roles played by the managers  Interpersonal roles – roles that have to do with establishing and maintaining interpersonal relations o Figurehead role – managers serve as symbols of their organization rather than active decision makers  Making a speech, entertaining clients, singing legal documents o Leadership role – managers select, mentor, reward and discipline employees o Liason role – managers maintain horizontal contacts inside and outside the organization  Discussing a project with a colleague in another dept. or touching base with an embassy delegate of a potential business contact  Informational roles – concerned with the various ways managers receive and transmit information o Monitor role - managers scan the internal and external environments of the firm to follow current performance and to keep themselves informed of new ideas and trends  Head of research attends conference o Disseminator role – managers send information on both facts and preferences to others  The R&D head might summarize what he or she learned at the conference in an email to employees o Spokesperson role – concerns mainly sending messages into the organizations external environment  Drafting an annual report, interview to the press  Decisional roles o Entrepreneur role - turn problems and opportunities into plans for improved changes  Suggesting a new product or service that will please customers o Disturbance handler role – managers deal with problems stemming from employee conflicts and address threats to resources and turf o Resource allocation role – managers decide how to deploy time, money, personnel and other critical resources o Negotiator role – managers conduct ma
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