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Western University
Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B

Chapter 1 – Organizational Behaviour and Management - Organizations are social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort Social Inventions - Social inventions - essential characteristics is the coordinated presence of people, but not necessarily things - The field of organizational behaviour is about understanding people and managing them to work effectively Goal Accomplishing - All organizations have survival as a goal - The field or organizational behaviour is concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt to change o Be motivated to join and remain in the organization o Carry out their basic work reliably in terms of productivity, quality, and service o Be willing to continuously learn and update their knowledge and skills o Be flexible and innovative - “Get innovative or get dead”  Tom Peters Group Effort - Organizations depend on interaction and coordination among people to accomplish their goals - The field of organizational behaviour is concerned with how to get people to practise effective teamwork What is Organizational Behaviour? - Refers to the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations - Those who study organizational behaviour are interested in attitudes - HRM refers to programs, practices, and systems to acquire, develop and retain employees in organizations Why Study Organizational Behaviour - Human capital is strongly related to and a key determinant of firm performance - Best companies of work for in Canada have implemented management practices that have their basis in organizational behaviour such as flexible work schedule, diversity programs, and employee recognition and reward programs How much do you know about organizational behaviour? - The personalities of effective leaders vary a fair amount, many people prefer routine jobs, managers are not well informed about the pay of their peers and superiors, workers underestimate their own absenteeism, and pay is not always the most effective way to motivate workers and improve job performance Goals of Organization Behaviour Predicting Organizational Behaviour - Interest in predicting when people will make ethical decisions, create innovative products, or engage in sexual harassment Explaining Organizational Behaviour - Predicting and explanation are not synonymous - Accurate prediction precedes explanation - Organizational behaviour is especially interested in determining why people are more or less motivated, satisfied, or prone to resign - This behaviour could have many different causes, each of which would require a specific solution Managing Organizational Behaviour - Management is defined as the art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others - Managers acquire, allocate, and utilize physical and human resources to accomplish goals - Evidence based management: translating principles based on the best scientific evidence into organizational practices Early Prescriptions Concerning Management The Classical View and Bureaucracy - Classical viewpoint: tended to advocate a very high degree of specialization of labour and a very high degree of coordination - Centralized decision making from upper management - Fairly few workers, except for lower level jobs where machine pacing might substitute for close supervision - Frederick Taylor – father of scientific management o Advocated to use of careful research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization o Supervisors would specialize in particular functions o Bureaucracy – rationally managing complex organizations. Has the following qualities:  A strict chain of command in which each member reports to only a single superior  Criteria for selection and promotion based on impersonal technical skills rather than nepotism or favouritism  A set of detailed rules, regulations, and procedures ensuring that the job gets done regardless of who the specific worker is  The use of strict specialization to match duties with technical competence  The centralization of power at the top of the organization Human Relations Movement and a Critique of Bureaucracy - Hawthorne Studies – research conduct at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric near Chicago in the 1920s and 1930s that illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustment - Concerned with the impact of fatigue, rest pauses, and work adjustment - Began to notice the effects of psychological and social processes on productivity and work adjustment - Advocated more people-oriented styles of management that catered more to the social and psychological needs of employees - Open communication, more employee participation in decision making and less rigid, more decentralized forms of control Contemporary Management – The Contingency Approach - A payroll department would be run more bureaucratically than a research and development department - It depends – contingencies - There is no one best way to manage; rather, an appropriate style depends on the demands of the situation - The effectiveness of a leadership style is contingent on the abilities of followers and the consequence of a pay increase is partly contingent on the need for money What Do Managers Do? Interpersonal Roles - Interpersonal roles are expected behaviours that have to do with establishing and maintaining interpersonal relations - Figurehead role – serve as symbols of their organization o Making a speech to a trade group, entertaining clients, or signing legal documents - Leadership role – o Managers select, mentor, reward, and discipline employees - Liaison role – o Horizontal contacts inside and outside the organization Informational Roles - Various ways managers receive and transmit information - Monitor role – managers scan the internal and external environments of the firm to follow current performance and to keep themselves informed of new ideas and trends o Example: head of research and development might attend a conference - Disseminator role – send info on both facts and preferences to others o Example: might email employees about what was learned at conference - Spokesperson role – sending messages into the organizations external environment o Example – drafting an annual report to stockholders Decision Roles - Entrepreneurial role – plans for improved changes - Disturbance handler role – deal with problems stemming from employee conflicts and address threats to resources and turf - Resource allocation role – decide how to deploy time, money, personnel and other critical resources - Negotiator role – conduct major negotiations with other organizations or individuals Managerial Activities: - Routine communication: formal sending and receiving of info and the handling of paperwork - Traditional management: planning, decision making, and controlling are the primary types of traditional management - Networking: consists of interacting with people outside of the organization - Human Resource Management: motivating, reinforcing, disciplining and punishing, managing conflict, staging and training and developing employees Managerial Agendas: agenda setting (concerned with people issues rather than numbers), networking, agenda implementation (using networks) - National culture is one of the most important contingency variables in organizational behaviour - Workplace spirituality: workplaces that provide employees with meaning, purpose, a sense of community, and connection to others (ex: quiet rooms) - Psychological Capital: positive psych state of development that is characterized by self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resilience – not fixed, stable or static personality traits Talent Management and Employee Engagement - Talent ranked second most critical challenge right behind business growth - Talent management: organization’s processes for attracting, developing, retaining and utilizing people with the required skills to meet current and future business needs - Work engagement: positive work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigour, dedication and absorption – key to organization success and competitiveness - OB provides the means for organizations to be designed and managed in ways that optimize the attraction, development, retention, engagement and performance of talent Corporate Social Responsibility - An organization taking responsibility for the impact of its decisions and actions on its stakeholders - Overall impact on society – how an organization performs its core functions of producing goods and providing services and that it does so in a socially responsible way o Treatment of employees, management practices such as managing diversity, work- family balance and employee equity Chapter 2 – Personality and Learning - Personality is the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment and how he or she feels, thinks, and behaves - Personal style of dealing with the world – susceptible to change Personality and Organizational Behaviour 1) Dispositional approach: focuses on individual dispositions and personality - Individuals possess stable stable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes and behaviours - Predisposed to behave in a certain way 2) Then came… Situational Approach: characteristics of the organizational setting, such as rewards and punishment, influence people’s feelings, attitudes, and behaviour 3) Then… Interactionist approach: organizational behaviour is a function of both dispositions and the situation – you must know the situation and the individuals personality o Personality has the most impact in weak situations because it is not clear how a person should act - Trait activation theory: traits lead to certain behaviours only when the situation makes the need for that trait salient – personality characteristics influence people’s behaviour when the situation calls for a particular personality characteristic The Big 5 Dimensions Model 1) Extraversion – outgoing not shy, sociable, important for jobs like sales and management 2) Emotional stability/Neuroticism – emotional control, high emotional stability (low neuroticism) have high self-esteem, those with lower emotional stability (high neuroticism) tend toward self- doubt and depression 3) Agreeableness – friendly and approachable – jobs with nurturing roles, teamwork or helping others 4) Conscientiousness – responsible and achievement-oriented, more conscientious people are dependable and positively motivated (self-disciplined, hard-working) while less conscientious people are lazy and irresponsible 5) Openness to experience – thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas, more open people are creative and innovative while others favour the status quo Locus of Control High Internal – self-initiative, personal actions, and free will – effort = performance High External – luck, fate, powerful people Self- monitoring - The extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social setting and relationships - Low self-monitors wear their heart on their sleeve – don’t watch what they say or how they act - High self-monitors take care to observe thoughts, actions, and feelings of those around them o Somewhat like actors o Sales, law, public relations, and politics o More involved in their jobs, leaders, perform at a higher level o More role stress and less commitment to organization o Weak innovators and would have difficulty resisting social pressure Self-Esteem - The degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation - Differences between people with high and low self-esteem has to do with the plasticity of their thoughts, attitudes, and behaviour o Behavioural plasticity theory: people with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those who have high esteem  Look for answers, seek social approval, don’t like negative feedback, - People with high self-esteem have more job satisfaction and performance Proactive Personality - Proactive behaviour: taking initiative to improve current circumstances of creating new ones o Challenging the status quo rather than passively adapting to present conditions - Proactive personality: a stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take personal initiative across a range of activities an situations and to effect positive change in one’s environment Self-Efficacy: general trait that refers to an individual’s belief in his or her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations - motivational trait not an affective trait Core self-evaluations: broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits – individuals hold evaluations about themselves and their self-worth or worthiness, competence, and capability - Best predictors of job satisfaction and performance What is learning? - Occurs when practice or experience leads to a relatively permanent change in behaviour potential - Practical skills: job specific skills, knowledge and technical competence - Intrapersonal skills: problem solving, critical thinking, learning about alternative work processes, and risk taking - Interpersonal skills: interactive skills such as communicating, teamwork, and conflict resolution - Cultural awareness: social norms of organizations, and understanding company goals, business operations, and company expectations and priorities Operant Theory - B.F Skinner – rat experiments (pulling level releases food) - Subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain consequences - Controlled by the consequences that follow it - Ex: salespeople learn effective sales techniques to achieve commissions and avoid criticism for their managers Positive Reinforcement: - Increases or maintain the probability of behaviour by the application or addition of stimulus to the situation in question - Ex: food pellets were the positive reinforcement when the rats pulling the level – thus the probability of them pulling the lever increased - Adding something to increase the probability of a behaviour - Food, praise, money, or business success - Whether or not something is a positive reinforcement depends only on whether it increases or maintains the occurrence of some behaviour by its application Negative Reinforcement: - Increases or maintains the probability of some behaviour by the removal of a stimulus from the situation in question - Also occurs when a response prevents some event or stimulus from occurring - Ex: rat in cage getting electrocuted – lever put in cage – shock acts as negative reinforcer for the lever pulling increasing the probability of the behaviour by the removal of the shock - Ex: nagging Performance feedback: providing quantitative or qualitative information on past performance for the purpose of changing or maintaining performance in specific ways Social Recognition: informal acknowledgement, attention, praise, approval, or genuine appreciation for work well done from one individual or group to another Extinction - Simply involves terminating the reinforcement that is maintaining some unwanted behaviour - If the behaviour is not reinforced, it will gradually dissipate or be extinguished o Ex: guy who plays comedian in meetings is reinforced by people laughing so the boss told people not to laugh and the behaviour is stopped - Extinction works best when coupled with the reinforcement of some desired substitute behaviour Punishment - Involves following an unwanted behaviour with some unpleasant, aversive stimulus - In negative reinforcement a nasty stimulus is removed following some behaviour, increasing the probability of that behaviour. With punishment, a nasty stimulus is added after some behaviour, decreasing the probability of that behaviour - Reinforcements are not the same as rewards because rewards aren’t contingent on specific behaviours that are of interest to the organization - Although the opportunity to earn extra money might have strong potential as a reinforcer, it is seldom made contingent on some desired behaviour Social Cognitive Theory - People have the cognitive capacity to regulate and control their own thoughts, feelings, actions and motivations - Emphasizes the role of cognitive processes in regulating people’s behaviour - Suggests that human behaviour can best be explained through a system of triadic reciprocal causation in which personal factors and environmental factors work together an interact to influence people’s behaviour - Compliments operant theory - 3 key components: o Observational learning: process of observing and imitating the behaviour of others  Self-reinforcement that occurs in the observational learning process  See what other peoples behaviours led to and if it is positive we model it o Self-Efficacy Beliefs: refer to beliefs people have about their ability to successfully perform a specific task  A task specific cognitive appraisal of one’s ability to perform a specific task – thus not a generalized personality trait  Based on experiences, previous successes, observations of others, verbal persuasion, social influence, and one’s physiological and emotional state o Self-Regulation: employees can use learning principles to manage their own behaviour, making external control less necessary  The basic process involves observing one’s own behaviour, comparing the behaviour with a standard, and rewarding oneself if the behaviour meets the standard  When there exists a discrepancy between one’s goals and performance, individuals are motivated to modify their behaviour in the pursuit of goal attainment, a process known as discrepancy reduction. When individuals attaint their goals, they are likely to set even higher and more challenging goals, a process known as discrepancy production Organizational Behaviour Modification - Involves the systematic use of learning principles to influence organizational behaviour - In general, research supports the effectiveness of organizational behaviour modification programs - Improves safety, work attendance and task performance Employee Recognition Programs - Formal organizational programs that publicly recognize and reward employees for specific behaviours - Must specify: (a) how a person will be recognized, (b) type of behaviour being encouraged, (c) the manner of the public acknowledgement, (d) a token or icon of the event for the recipient o Public form of acknowledgement is a key part of employee recognition therefore money would not be good unless backed up by public praise - High job performance and satisfaction, low turnover, high productivity Chapter 3 – Perception, Attribution, and Diversity What is Perception? - The process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment - Helps sort out and organize the complex and varied input received by our sense of sight, smell, touch, taste and hearing Components of Perception - Perceiver o The perceivers experience, needs and emotions can affect his or her perceptions of a target o One of the most important characteristics of the perceiver that influences his or her impressions of a target is experience  Expectations – affect current perceptions o Our needs unconsciously influence our perceptions by causing use to perceive what we wish to perceive  Perceivers who have been de
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