MOS 2181 Unit 1 & 2 Quick Notes (2).docx

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Elizabeth Hayden

Brief Notes on the First and Second Modules of OB 2181 MODULE ONE Chapter One – Organizational Behaviour and Management  Classical View of Management  High specialization of labour, intensive coordination, centralized decision making  Bureaucracy  Strict chain of command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power, selection and promotion based on competence  Hawthorne Studies  Concerned with effects of fatigue, rest pauses, and lighting on productivity  Managerial Roles  Interpersonal - Figurehead (serving as a symbol of the organization, making a speech) - Leader (lead employees) - Liaison (maintaining contact within the company or with partner companies)  Informational -Monitor (track performance) -Disseminator (sending out information) -Spokesperson (sending messages to the external environment)  Decisional - Entrepreneur (innovating for efficiency) - Disturbance Handler (handle disturbances) - Negotiator (negotiate with other organizations) Chapter 2 – Personality and Learning  Approaches to OB  Dispositional - Individuals possess stable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes and behaviours  Situational - The setting influences attitudes and behavior  Interactionist - Combo of both Dispositional and Situational  Five-Factor Model of Personality  Extraversion  Emotional Stability/Neuroticism  Agreeableness  Conscientiousness  Openness to experience  CANOE!!! - High conscientiousness predicts best overall job performance. - Extraverts tend to be absent more often. - Neuroticism and conscientiousness related to motivation, negatively and positively, respectively. - All but openness related to job satisfaction  Locus of Control, Self Monitoring, and Self Esteem  Behavioural Plasticity Theory  New Developments!  Positive/Negative Affectivity - Positive = happier, negative = less happy  Proactive Personality  General Self-Efficacy - Belief in yourself, gives motivation.  Core Self-Evaluations - Self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. - Best predictors of job satisfaction and performance.  Operant Learning Theory  Learning through consequences  Reinforcement  Positive, applying stimulus – Negative, taking something away  Performance feedback and social recognition are important with reinforcement, improve performance  Continuous reinforcement with short delays gives fast acquisition  Partial reinforcement with long delays gives persistence  Extinction and Punishment  Punishment must be aversive  Punish immediately  Don’t reward unwanted behaviours before or after punishment  Don’t punish desirable behavior by accident  Observational Learning, imitating behavior of others  Self Efficacy Beliefs  Performance Mastery  Observation  Verbal Persuasion and Social Influence  Physiological State  Learning Practices  Employee Recognition Programs  Training and Development Programs  Career Development Chapter 3 – Perception, Attribution, and Diversity  Bruner’s Model of the Perceptual Process  Unfamiliar target encountered  Openness to target cues  Familiar Cues Encountered  Target Categorized  Cue Selectivity  Categorization Strengthened  Biases In Person Perception  Primacy Effect (first impression)  Recency Effect (last impression)  Central Trait Reliance (organize perceptions around particular traits, such as physical appearance)  Implicit Personality Theories (one trait implies another, hard working employees are honest)  Projection (others are similar to you)  Stereotyping (generalizing someone based on race, profession, etc.)  Attribution, giving a cause or motive for someone’s behavior  Can be dispositional or situational  Cues - Consistency (how often the behavior occurs through time) - Consensus (how their behavior compares to others) - Distinctiveness (how behavior varies across situations)  Biases - Fundamental Attribution Error (blaming disposition, not situation) - Actor Observer Effect (individuals view different causes for behavior) - Self serving bias (take credit for successes, not for failures) Chapter 4 – Values, Attitudes, and Work Behaviour  Values  Power distance  Uncertainty Avoidance  Masculinity/Femininity  Individualism/Collectivism  Long term/Short term orientation  Determining Job Satisfaction  Discrepancy (outcomes wanted and perceived to be obtained)  Fairness - Distr
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