MOS 2181 OB Detailed Textbook Notes Chapter 2

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Hayden Woodley

1 Part  2-­  Chapter  2:  Individual  Behaviour;;  Personality  and  Learning Economical  Insurance -­  a  property  insurance  company  -­-­>  1971 -­  Berlin,  ON -­  2500  employees,  one  of  the  largest  property  and  casualty  insurance  companies  in  Cda -­    17  branches  and  member  companies -­  companies  medical  plan  costs  had  been  increasing  at  annual  rate  of  8-­12  % -­  began  thinking  of  wellness  strategy -­  needed  a  program  that  would  meet  following  goals: -­  build  employee  awareness  of  individual  health -­  enhance  employee  engagement -­  reward  employees  for  broad  range  of  wellness  behaviours -­  enhance  organizational  health -­  have  flexibility  to  evolve  as  needs  change -­  produce  measurable  results  in  group  benefits  experience,  absenteeism,  and  other  key areas  within  3-­5  years -­  first  year -­  focus:  enhancing  awareness  of  individual  employees  and  overall  org.  health -­  would  set  business  or  suture  strategies  and  initiatives -­  wellness  campaign:  biometric  clinics,  wellness  assessments,  new  personal  wellness account  introduces -­  biometric  screening:  15  minute  voluntary  appointment  with  nurse-­  looked  for  6  heart disease  risk  factors) -­  wallet  cards  documenting  their  measures  to  monitor  changes  speak  with  physicians  and enter  information  into  wellness  assessments -­  confidential  wellness  assessment -­  on  benefit  carrier’s  website,  32  questions  assessing  10  health  risks -­  got  individualized  reports  summarizing  results,  and  tips  for  improvement -­  $300  to  those  who  completed  assessment  in  given  time  period-­  wellness  credits into  wellness  account -­  54%  completed  the  assessment  before  date -­  second  year -­  team  wellness  challenge;;  crate  action  and  behaviour  change -­  main  challenge:  point  for  each  minute  of  exercise -­  bonus  points  for  participation  in  focus  areas -­  worked  towards  common  health  goals  and  logged  activities  using  online  journal -­  teams  were  made  by  combining  individual  scores  and  team  with  most  points  won -­  members  who  did  challenge  rewarded  150  for  wellness  accounts -­  from  first  year  to  second  year;;  there  was  a  change  in  incentive  strategy  =  purposeful, multiyear  approach  that  progressively  requires  employees  to  adjust  behaviours -­  launches  a  4  week  send  walking  challenge  e-­  more  than  70%  of  employees,  and  more  than 112000  km -­  employees  learnt  a  lot  about  their  personal  health  -­-­  92%  biometric  screening 2 participants  -­-­  helped  them  learn  more  about  cardiovasc.  health -­  71%  said  they  would  be  making  changes  to  their  lifestyles -­  employees;;  now  challenged  to  sustain  their  changes  they  have  made  in  behaviour -­  within  the  next  2  years  they  expect  the  program  to  see  measurable  improvements  in benefit  experience  and  absenteeism -­  also  hope  the  program  will  enhance  employee  engagement  and  productivity,  help  contain rising  health  care  costs -­  learning:  critical  requirement  for  effective  OB -­  employee  learning  has  to  be  continuous  and  lifelong  :  because  of  today’s  rapidly  changing  and competitive  environment What  is  personality? -­  some  companies  focus  on  personality  when  hiring  employees -­  Kirmac  Collision  Services  :  automotive  collision  repair  company  -­-­?  new  approach  to recruiting  and  hiring  -­-­>  less  industry  specific  experience  and  skill,  more  on  personality -­  Personality:  the  relativity  stable  set  of  psychological  characteristics  that  influences  the  way  an individual  interacts  with  his/her  environment  and  how  he/she  feels,  thinks  and  behaves -­  summarizes  his/her  personal  style  of  dealing  with  the  world -­  consists  of  a  number  of  dimensions  in  a  complex  way -­  genetic  predisposition  and  y  ones  learning  history -­  personality  is  stable  but  subject  to  change  through  adult  learning  experiences -­  people  have  variety  of  personality  characteristics -­  excessive  typing  (i.e.  high  self  esteem)  does  not  help  us  appreciate  unique  potential  to contribute  to  an  org. Personality  and  Organizational  Behaviour -­  initial  belief:  personality  was  an  important  factor  in  many  areas  of  OB  i.e.  motivation,  attitudes, performance,  leadership -­  after  WW2  ;;  use  of  personality  tests  for  selection  of  military  personnel  became  widespread  and in  1950s  -­  60s  it  was  popular  in  OB -­  dispositional  approach:  individuals  possess  stable  traits  or  characteristics  that  influence  their attitudes  and  behaviours -­  individuals  are  predisposed  to  act  certain  ways -­  decades  of  research  have  found  mixed  and  inconsistent  findings  -­-­  fail  to  support  the usefulness  of  personality  as  a  predictor  of  OCB  and  job  performance -­  result:  dramatic  decrease  in  personality  research  and  decline  in  use  of  personality  test for  selection -­  researchers  began  to  shift  focus  to  factors  in  work  environment  that  predict  and  explain  OB  -­-­> situational  approach  :  characteristics  of  the  organizational  setting  (i.e.  rewards  and  punishments) influence  people’s  attitudes  and  behaviours -­  i.e.  studies  show  job  satisfaction  +  other  work  related  attitudes  determined  by  situational  factors i.e.  characteristics  of  work  tasks -­  person-­situation  debate:  proponents  of  both  approaches  have  argued  about  importance  of 3 dispositions  vs.  the  situation -­  known  that  both  approaches  are  important  for  prediction  and  understanding  OF -­  leads  to  a  third  approach:  interactionist  approach -­  interactionist  approach:  individuals  attitudes  and  behaviour  are  a  function  of  both  dispositions and  the  situation -­  to  predict  or  understand  OB,  one  must  know  something  about  an  individuals  personality and  setting  in  which  he/she  works -­  now  the  most  widely  accepted  perspective  within  OB -­  e.g.  role  of  personality  in  different  situations  :  either  weak  or  strong  :  weak:  not  always clear  how  one  should  behave,  strong:  clear  expectations  for  appropriate  behaviour -­  result:  personality  has  most  impact  on  weak  situations  (because  there  are  loosely defined  rules,  wear  reward  and  punishment  contingencies -­  strong:  defined  rules  and  roles,  personality  has  less  impact -­  one  of  the  most  important  implications  of  the  interactionist  perspective  is  that  some  personality characteristics  are  useful  in  certain  org.  situations -­  Trial  activation  theory:  traits  lead  to  certain  behaviours  only  when  the  situation  makes  the need  for  the  trait  salient -­  personality  characteristics  influence  people's  behaviour  when  the  situation  calls  for  a particular  personality  characteristics -­  no  best  one  personality -­  managers  need  to  appreciate  advantaged  of  diversity -­  fit:  putting  right  person  in  the  right  job,  group,  or  org,  and  exposing  different  employees  to different  management  skills -­  has  been  a  resurgence  of  interest  in  personality  research  in  OB -­  problem  with  early  research:  use  of  inadequate  measures  of  personality  characteristics -­  advances  in  measurement  and  trends  in  orgs.  prompt  renewed  interest i.e.  increased  emphasis  on  service  jobs  with  consumer  contact,  concern  about  ethics  and integrity,  contemporary  interest  in  teamwork  and  cooperation  =  contribution  of  personality -­  reason  #2  for  renewed  interest  in  personally  =  development  of  a  framework  of  personality characteristics=  Five  Factor  Model -­  framework  of  classifying  personality  characteristics  into  five  general  dimensions -­  easier  to  understand/study  role  of  personality  in  OB Five  Factor  Model  of  Personality Extraversion -­  extent  to  which  a  person  is  outgoing  vs.  shy -­  high  scorers:  sociable,  outgoing,  energetic,  joyful,  assertive -­  enjoy  social  situations -­  low  scorers:  avoid  social  situations -­  especially  important  for  jobs  requiring  lots  of  interpersonal  attraction  i.e.  sales  and management Emotional  stability/Neuroticism -­  degree  to  which  a  person  has  appropriate  emotional  control -­  high  emotional  stability  (  low  neuroticism)  =  self  confident,  high  self  esteem 4 -­  lower  emotional  stability  (high  neuroticism)  =  self  doubt  and  depression -­  anxious,  hostile,  impulsive,  depressed,  insecure,  prone  to  stress -­  any  job;;  performance  will  suffer  for  low  emotional  stability -­  high  emotional  stability:  more  effective  interactions  with  co  workers  and  customers  (are calm  and  secure) Agreeableness -­  extent  to  which  person  is  friendly,  approachable -­  warm  considering  friendly  sympathetic  cooperative  eager  to  help  others -­  less  agreeable=  argumentative  inflexible,  uncooperative,  uncaring,  intolerant, disagreeable -­  agreeableness  most  likely  to  contribute  to  job  performance  in  jobs  requiring  interaction, helping,  cooperating,  nurturing  others -­  jobs  involving  teamwork  and  cooperation Conscientiousness -­  degree  to  which  a  person  is  responsible  and  achievement  oriented -­  more  conscientious=  dependable  and  positively  motivated -­  orderly  ,  self  disciplined,  hard  working,  achievement  striving -­  less  conscientious  =  irresponsible,  lazy,  impulsive -­  high  on  conscientiousness  =  perform  well  on  most  jos  given  tendency  toward  hard work/achievement Openness  to  experience -­  extent  to  which  a  person  thinks  flexibly  and  is  receptive  to  new  ideas -­  tend  toward  creativity  and  innovation -­  less  open=  favour  status  quo -­  high  on  openness:  do  well  in  jobs  involving  learning,  creativity  given  they  tend  to  be intellectual,  imaginative,  have  broad  interests -­  Big  Five  dimensions  are  relatively  independent  (you  can  be  higher  or  lower  in  any  combination  of dimensions) -­  hold  up  well  cross-­culturally -­  also  evidence  that  the  Big  Five  traits  have  a  genetic  basis Research  Evidence -­  linked  to  OB  (big  Five) -­  1.  each  of  Big  Five  is  related  to  job  performance,  and  org.  citizenship  behaviours -­  organizational  citizenship  behaviours:  voluntary  behaviours  that  contributes  to  org.  effectiveness i.e.  helping  coworkers) -­  Big  Five  (BF)  dimensions  that  best  predict  job  performance  depend  on  the  occupation -­  high  extraversion  is  important  for  managers  and  salespersons -­  high  conscientiousness  predict  performance  in  all  jobs  across  occupations -­  also  the  strongest  predictor  of  all  the  BF  dimensions  of  overall  job  performance -­  2.  BF  ae  related  to  other  work  behaviours -­  i.e.  conscientiousness  is  related  to  retention  and  attendance  at  work-­-­>  is  also  important  antidote 5 for  counterproductive  behaviours  ie.  theft,  absenteeism,  extraverts  tend  to  be  more  absent  than  introverts -­  BF  are  also  related  to  work  motivation  and  job  satisfaction -­  relationship  between  BF  and  different  indicators  of  work  motivation -­  BF  were  found  to  be  highly  related  to  motivation -­  neuroticism  and  consciousness  were  strongest  predictors  of  motivation  -­-­>  neuroticism  being negatively  related  and  latter  being  positively  related -­  another  study:  BF  were  shown  to  be  significantly  related  to  job  satisfaction -­  strongest  predictor  was  neuroticism  i.e.  emotional  stability  followed  by  conscientiousness, extraversion  and  agreeableness -­  openness  to  experience-­  not  related  to  job  satisfaction -­  high  neuroticism=  lower  job  satisfaction -­  higher  extraversion,  conscientiousness,  agreeableness  -­-­>  associated  with  higher  job  satisfaction -­  similar  results  for  life  satisfaction -­  individuals  with  higher  conscientiousness  ,  extraversion,  agreeableness  and  emotional  stability perform  better  on  a  team  in  terms  of  performance  of  team  relevant  behaviours i.e.  cooperation,  concern,  courtesy  etc -­  BF  -­  related  to  job  search  and  career  success -­  extraversion,  conscientiousness,  openness  to  experience,  agreeableness  =  positively  related  to intensity  of  job  seekers  job  search -­  neuroticism  negatively  related -­  conscientiousness  =  positively  related  to  probability  of  obtaining  employment -­  high  consciousnesses,,  extraversion,  low  neuroticism  -­  higher  income  and  occupational  status -­  related  to  career  success  even  when  the  influence  of  general  mental  ability  was  taken  into account -­  both  childhood  and  adult  measures  of  personality  predict  career  success  during  childhood  over period  of  50  years -­  ones  personality  can  influence  one's  attitudes  and  behaviours -­  research  indicates  more  specific  personality  characteristics    that  influence  OB  (locus  of  control,  self monitoring,  self  esteem) Locus  of  Control -­  Laurie  and  Stan  examples -­  laurie  and  stan  differ  in  personality  dimension  =  locus  of  control -­  Locus  of  control:  a  set  of  beliefs  about  whether  one’s  behaviour  is  controlled  mainly  by  internal or  external  forces -­  individual  beliefs  about  the  location  of  the  factors  that  control  their  behaviour -­  high  internals:  i.e.  Laurie  -­>  believe  that  the  opportunity  to  control  their  own  behaviour  resides within  themselves -­  high  externals:  i.e.  Stan  who  believe  that  external  forces  determine  their  behaviour -­  externals  see  world  as  unpredictable,  chance  lace  in  which  luck  fate  or  powerful  people  control their  destinies -­  internals:  see  stronger  links  between  effort  they  put  into  their  jobs  and  performance  level  hey achieve 6 -­  they  perceive  to  a  greater  degree  that  org.  will  notice  high  performance  and  reward  it -­  are  more  likely  to  be  aware  of  and  take  advantage  of  information  that  will  enable  them  to perform  effectively -­  research:  locus  of  control  influences  OB  in  variety  of  occupational  settings -­  high  on  internal  control  are  more  satisfied  with  their  jobs  more  committed  with  their organizations,  earn  more  money  achieve  higher  organizational  positions  (perceive  themselves  as  being  able to  control  what  happens  to  them) -­  they  perceive  less  stress,  cope  with  stress  better,  and  experience  less  burnout  ,  engage  in  careful career  planning -­  less  likely  to  be  absent  from  work  and  more  satisfied  with  life Research  Focus:  CEO  Personality  and  Firm  performance -­  ability  to  adapt  quickly  to  environmental  changes  or  strategic  flexibility  (sf)    (key  success factor) -­  sf  has  been  shown  to  drive  firm  performance -­  CEO=  important  role  in  driving  strategic  change  ,  has  profound  effect  on  org.’s  strategic direction/performance -­  Sucheta  Nadkarni  +  Pol  Herrmann  -­  study -­  CEOS-­  195-­  small  and  medium  enterprises  from  indian  process  outsourcing  industry -­  offshore  business  process  outsourcing:  transfer  of  operational  ownership  of  one  or  more of  a  firm's  processes  to  external  provider  from  another  country  (which  then  manages  processes  according to  predetermined  metrics) -­  india:  leading  business  process  outsourcing  services  -­-­>  strategic  flexibility  is  essential for  success/survival -­  predictions:  CEOs  personalities  can  influence  firm  performance  by  enhancing  or inhibiting  sf -­  because:  personality  will  influence  how  they  search  for  and  interpret  information  central to  developing  sf -­  focused  on  Five  Factor  Model  dimensions  -­-­>  each  dimension  will  be  positively  or negatively  related  to  sf -­  CEOs  completed  personality/demographic  survey-­-­>  2  top  managers  completed  sf survey  -­-­>  results  :  emotional  stability,  extraversion  ,  openness  to  experience  were  +  related  to  sf  and consciousness  was  -­  related -­  medium  levels  of  agreeableness  related  to  most  strategic  sf -­  sf  was  +  related  to  firm  performance -­  CEO  extraversion,  emotional  stability,  openness  to  experience  =  enhanced  im performance  by  fostering  sf -­  conscientiousness  undermined  firm  performance -­  medium  levels  of  agreeableness  maximized  sf  and  firm  performance Self-­Monitoring -­  the  extent  to  which  people  observe  and  regulate  how  they  spread  and  behave  in  social  settings and  relationships -­  people  who  wear  their  hearts  on  their  sleeves  are  low  in  self  monitoring 7 -­  not  concerned  with  scoping  out  and  fitting  in  with  those  around  them -­  opposites  are  high  self  monitors:  great  care  to  observe  thoughts  actions  and  feelings  of  those around  them  and  control  the  images  they  project -­  high  self  monitors-­  somewhat  like  actors  -­-­>  tend  to  show  concern  for  socially  appropriate emotions  /behaviours,  to  tune  in  to  social  and  interpersonal  cues -­  they  regulate  their  behaviour  and  self  presentation  according  to  cues -­  self  monitoring  and  OB -­  high  self  monitors  gravitate  towards  jobs  that  require  degree  of  role  playing,  and  exercise self-­presentation  skills -­  i.e  sales,  law,  public  relations,  politics -­  the  ability  to  adapt  to  ones  clients  and  contacts  is  critical  (  as  well  as  communication skills  and  persuasive  abilities) -­  characteristics  high  self  monitor:  perform  well  in  occupations  that  call  for  flexibility  or adaptiveness  with  diverse  constituencies -­  managers  are  inclined  to  be  higher  self  minitoes  than  non  managers  in  the  same  org. -­  high  self  monitors  -­  more  involved  in  their  job,  perform  at  higher  level,  more  likely  to emerge  as  leaders -­  also  likely  to  experience  more  stress  and  show  less  commitment  to  their  org. -­  ability  to  regulate  and  adapt  ones  behaviours  in  social  situations  and  to  manage impressions  others  form  of  them  is  a  career  advantage  for  high  monitors -­  study:  tracked  careers  of  a  sample  of  MBA  graduates,  high  self  monitors  more  likely  to change  employers  and  locations  to  receive  more  promotions  than  low  self  monitors -­  high  self  monitors  disadvantages: -­  more  likely  to  feel  uncomfortable  in  ambiguous  social  settings,  (hard  to determine  exactly  what  behaviours  are  socially  appropriate -­  unfamiliar  cultures  (national  or  corporate)  might  provoke  stress -­  some  roles  require  people  to  go  against  grain  or  really  stand  up  for  themselves  -­-­  >  high mons.  would  be  weak  innovators  and  would  have  difficulty  resisting  social  pressure Self-­Esteem -­  Self  esteem:  the  degree  to  which  a  person  has  a  position  self  evaluation -­  high  self  esteem=  favourable  self  images -­  low  self  esteem  =  unfavorable  self  images -­  also  tend  to  be  uncertain  about  the  correctness  of  their  opinions  attitudes  or  behaviours -­  people  tend  to  be  highly  motivated  to  protect  themselves  from  threats  to  their  self esteem -­  behavioural  plasticity  theory:  people  with  low  self  esteem  tend  to  be  more  susceptible  to external  and  social  influences  than  those  who  have  high  self  esteem  (more  pliable) -­  event  and  people  in  the  organizational  environment  have  more  impact  on  beliefs  and actions  of  employees  with  low  self  esteem -­  this  is  because  being  unsure  about  their  own  views  and  behaviour  they  are  more likely  to  look  to  others  for  information  and  confirmation -­  they  also  seek  social  approval  from  others,  they  do  not  react  well  to  stressful  or 8 ambiguous  situations  (this  ties  into  the  interactionist  approach  because  the  effect  of  the  work  environment on  people's  beliefs  and  actions  is  partly  a  function  of  their  self  esteem) -­  employees  with  low  self  esteem  -­-­>  react  badly  to  negative  feedback  -­-­  lowers  their subsequent  performance -­means  managers  should  be  especially  cautious  when  using  negative reinforcement  and  punishment  -­-­>  if  it’s  external  causes  that  are  responsible  for  performance  problem  it should  be  made  clear -­  managers  should  direct  criticism  on  the  performance  difficulty  and  not  at  the  prison -­  modelling  the  correct  behaviour  should  be  especially  effective  with  employees  with  low  self esteem  who  are  quite  willing  to  imitate  credible  models  and  respond  well  to  self  monitoring -­  orgs.  -­-­>  try  to  avoid  assuming  those  with  low  self  esteem  to  jobs  that  inherently  provide  a  lot  of negative  feedback  i.e.  life  insurance  sales -­  high  self  esteem-­-­>  orgs  will  benefit  from,  fulfilling  career  decisions,  higher  job  satisfaction  and job  performance  they  are  generally  more  resilient  to  strains  of  everyday  worklife -­  bolstering  self  esteem:  opportunity  for  decision  making,  autonomy,  interesting  worl -­  should  aod  creating  culture  with  excessive  and  petty  work  rules  -­>  signal  employees  that  they are  incompetent  or  untrustworthy New  Developments  in  Personality  and  Organizational  Behaviour -­  five  recent  personality  variables  that  have  been  found  as  important  for  OB -­  Positive/negative  affectivity -­  proactive  personality -­  general  self  efficacy -­  core  self  evaluations Positive/Negative  Affectivity -­  Positive  Affectivity  (PA)  -­  propensity  to  view  the  world,  including  oneself  and  other  people  in  a positive  light -­  joy,  excitement -­  they  tend  to  be  cheerful  enthusiastic,  lively,  sociable,  energetic -­  Negative  affectivity  (NA)  -­  propensity  to  view  the  world,  including  oneself  and  other  people  in a  negative  light -­  overall  negative  view,  distressed,  depressed,  unhappy -­  NA  and  PA  are  not  ends  on  a  continuum  but  are  independent  dimensions -­  they  are  emotional  dispositions  that  predict  peoples  general  emotional  tendencies -­  can  influence  people's  emotions  and  mood  states  at  work  and  influence  job  attitudes  and  work behaviours -­  people  high  on  PA  have  higher  job  satisfaction,  job  performance,  and  engage  in  more  org. citizenship  behaviours -­  high  NA  report  lower  job  satisfaction,  poorer  job  performance,  experience  more  stressful  work conditions  and  higher  levels  of  workplace  stress  and  strain -­  NA  also  associated  with  counterproductive  work  behaviours  i.e.  harassment  and  physical aggression,  withdrawal  behaviours  i.e.  absenteeism  turnover  and  occupational  injury -­  PA  is  key  factor  that  links  happiness  to  success  in  life  and  work 9 Proactive  Personality  -­  taking  initiative  to  improve  one's  current  circumstances  or  creating  new  ones  is  proactive behaviour -­  involves  challenging  the  status  quo,  not  passively  adapting  to  recent -­  people  that  are  better  at  this:  have  stable  disposition  toward  proactive  behaviour  i.e.  proactive personality -­  proactive  personality:  a  stable  personal  disposition  that  reflects  a  tendency  to  take  personal initiative  across  range  of  activities  and  situations  and  to  effect  positive  change  in  one’s  environment -­  proactive  people  =  search  and  identify  opportunities,  show  initiatives  take  action  and  persevere until  they  bring  meaningful  change -­  do  not  have  proactive  personality:  passive,  react  and  adapt  to  environment -­  tend  to  endure  and  shaped  by  environment  (rather  than  change  it) -­  proactive  personality:  job  satisfaction,  job  performance,  org.  citizenship  behaviours,  tolerance  for stress  in  demanding  jobs,  leadership  effectiveness,  participation  in  org.  initiatives,  work  team  performance, and  entrepreneurship -­  study:  pp  is  associated  with  higher  performance  evaluations  -­  since  they  develop  strong supportive  networks  and  perform  initiative-­taking  behaviours  i.e  implementing  solutions  to  orgs.  or departmental  problems -­  high  quality  relationships  with  supervisors  ,more  successful  in  searching  for  employment  and career  success,  more  likely  to  find  a  job,  receive  higher  salaries,  more  frequent  promotions,  have  more satisfying  careers General  Self-­efficacy -­  GSE  is  a  general  trait  that  refers  to  an  individuals  belief  in  his  or  her  ability  to  perform successfully  in  a  variety  of  challenging  situations -­  is  a  motivational  trait  (not  affective  trait)-­-­>  bc  reflects  an  individual's  belief  that  he/s  he  can succeed  at  variety  of  tasks  rather  than  how  an  individual  feels  about  him  of  herself -­  gse  develops  over  the  lifespan  as  repeated  successes  and  failures  are  experienced  across  variety of  tasks  and  situations -­  experience  many  successes  in  your  life:  high  GSE -­  better  able  to  adapt  to  novel,  uncertain,  adverse  situations -­  higher  job  satisfaction  and  job  performance Core  Self-­Evaluations -­  core  self-­evaluations  :  a  broad  personality  concept  that  consists  of  more  specific  traits  that reflect  the  evaluations  people  hold  about  themselves  and  their  self  worth -­theory  behind  it  ;;  individual  should  evaluations  about  themselves  and  their  self  worth  or worthiness,  competence,  capability -­  Jude,  Cole,  Durham-­-­>  identified  four  traits  that  make  up  person’s  core  self  evaluation -­  self  esteem,  general  self  efficacy,  locus  of  control,  neuroticism -­  these  traits  are  best  dispositional  predictors  of  job  satisfaction  and  job  performance -­  people  with  more  positive  core  self  evaluations  have  higher  job  satisfaction  /performance  and org.  commitment -­  core  evaluations  measured  in  childhood  and  early  adulthood  are  related  to  job  satisfaction  in 10 middle  adulthood -­  therefore:  core  self  evaluations  are  related  to  job  satisfaction  over  time -­  positively  related  to  life  and  career  satisfaction -­  higher  CSE  =  fewer  stressors  and  experience  less  stress/conflict  at  work -­  individuals  with  positive  self  regard  are  more  likely  to  perceive  and  pay  attention  to  the  positive aspects  of  their  environment  (hence  relation  between  CSE  and  work  outcomes)  -­>  experience  job  are more  intrinsically  satisfying  and  have  higher  perception  of  fairness/support What  is  Learning -­  environment  can  change  people's  behaviour  and  even  shape  personalities -­  Learning:  a  relatively  permanent  change  in  behaviour  potential  that  occurs  due  to  practise  or  experience -­  practise  or  experience  rule  out  viewing  behavioural  changes  caused  by  factors  i.e.  drug  intake, biological  maturation  etc. -­  the  practice  and  experience  prompts  learning  -­-­>  stems  from  environment  that  gives  feedback concerning  the  consequences  of  behaviour What  do  employees  learn? -­  learning  ;;  can  be  learned  in  terms  of  taxonomies -­  indicate  what  employees  learn,  how  they  learn,  different  types  of  learning  experiences -­  what  aspects  of  learning  can  be  described  as  learning  content:  Practical  skills,  interpersonal skills,  interpersonal  skills,  cultural  awareness -­  practical  skills    job  specific  skills,  knowledge,  technical  competence, -­  employees  learn  new  skills  and  technologies -­  continually  improve  performance -­  keep  orgs.  competitive -­  constant  improvement:  major  goal  in  many  orgs.  today -­  learning:  gives  orgs.  competitive  advantage -­  Intrapersonal  skills  problem  solving  critical  thinking -­  learning  about  alternative  work  processes -­  risk  taking -­  Interpersonal  Skills  interactive  skills -­  communicating,  teamwork,  conflict  resolution -­  Cultural  Awareness -­  learning  social  norms  of  orgs.  and  understanding  company  goals,  business  operations, company  expectations  and  priorities -­  all  employees  need  to  learn  cultural  norms  and  expectations  of  their  orgs.  to  function  as effective  org.  member Operant  Learning  Theory -­  B.F.  SKinner  -­-­>  behaviour  or  rats  confined  in  a  box  containing  lever  that  delivered  food  pellets  when pulled -­  operant  learning  :  learning  by  which  the  subject  learns  to  operate  on  the  environment  to  achieve certain  consequences 11 -­  the  operantly  learned  behaviour  is  controlled  by  the  consequence  that  follows  it -­  consequences  usually  depend  on  the  behaviour,  and  this  c
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