MOS 2181 OB Detailed Textbook Notes Chapter 3

6 Pages
92 Views

Department
Management and Organizational Studies
Course Code
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Professor
Hayden Woodley

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 6 pages of the document.
Description
Chapter(3(Perception,(Attribution,(and(Diversity( Opening'story:'KMPG'pays'much'attention'to'workplace'diversity ' 1. What(is(perception ( !Perception'is'the'process'of' interpreting'the'messages'of'our'senses'to' provide'order'and'meaning'to'the'environment ' 2. Components(of(perception ( a. Perceiver'(you)' i. Experience'is'one'of'the'most'important'characteristics'affecting'how' perceivers’'perception' ii. Past'experience!develop'expectations!expectations'affect'current' perceptions' iii. Our'needs'unconsciously'influence'our'perceptions'by'causing'us'to' perceive'what'we'wish'to'perceive' ' iv. Emotions'(happy'boss'interpret'employees'in'a'better'way) ' v. Perceptual'defence:'our'perceptual'system'is'working'to'ensure'that'we' do'not'see'or'hear'things'that'are'threatening'' b. Target' i. Perceivers'give'interpretations'and'additions'to'the'target ' ii. Perceivers'cannot/do'not'always'use'all'the'information'about'the' target' iii. A'reduction'in'ambiguity'might'not'be'accompanied'by'greater'accuracy' of'perception' c. Situation' i. Every'perception'occurs'in'some'situational'context,'and'the'context' affects'perception' 3. Social(identity(theory( a. Social'identity'theory:'people'form'perceptions'of'themselves'based'on'their' personal'characteristics'and'memberships'in'social'categories. ' i. Personal'identity:'based'on'unique'personal'characteristics'(interests,' abilities,'and'traits.' ii. Social'identity:'based'on'our'perception'that'we'belong'to'various'social' groups'(gender,'nationality,'religion,'occupation) ' b. Why'we'have'different'“identities” ' i. We'categorize'ourselves'and'others'to'make'sense'of'and'understand' the'social'environment' ii. Prototypes:'once'define'you,'you'are'who'you'are'(more'about'personal' traits)' iii. We'perceive'others'based'on'their'membership'in'social'categories' (social'identities'are'relational'and'comparative)' c. Your'perception'of'others'is'a'function'of'how'you'categorize'yourself'and'your' target!if'the'situation'changes,'the'categorization'and'the'relation'between' perceiver'and'target'might'change'too ' d. People'perceive'members'of'their'own' social'group'categories'in'more'positive' and'favorable'ways!useful'to'learn'stereotype'and'discrimination' ' 4. A(model(of(the(perceptual(process ( a. General'perceive'processes'on'an'unfamiliar'thing: ' i. Unfamiliar'target'encountered'(new'co Pworker)' ii. Openness'to'target'cues''(observation;'search'for'information)' iii. Familiar'cues'encountered'(co Pworker'is'a'Stanford'graduate'with'good' grades)' iv. Target'categorized'(coPworker'is'goodPman'with'greatPpotential)' v. Cue'selectivity'(coPworker’s'poor'performance'ignored'or'distorted) ' vi. Categorization'strengthened'(co Pworker'is'still'good'man'with'great' potential)' b. Characteristics'about'perception'processes ' i. Selective'(do'NOT'use'all'available'information,'only'use'cues'which' were'given'great'emphasis) ' ii. Our'perception'builds'a'constant'pictur e'of'the'target'(constancy!the' tendency'for'the'target'to'be'perceived'in'the'same'way'over'time'or' across'the'same'situations)' iii. Our'perception'creates'consistent'picture'of'the'target' (consistency!the'tendency'to'select,'ignore,'and'distort'cues'in'such'a' manner'that'they'fit'together'to'form'a'homogeneous'picture'of'the' target)' 5. Basic(biases(in(person(perception ( a. Primacy'and'recency'effects ' i. Primacy'effect:'first'impression !has'a'lasing'impact'(interviewer'has'a' good'first'impression!more'likely'to'hire'you) ' ii. Recency'effect:'give'undue'weight'to'the'cues'they'encountered'most' recently'(last'impression'count'most) ' b. Reliance'on'central'traits ' i. Perceiver'more'focuses'on'central'traits'which'they'have'a'particular' interests'in.' ii. Physical'appearance'is'a'common'central 'trait' iii. Taller'and'attractive'get'paid'more'than'over'weighted ' c. Implicit'personality'theories'(traits'combined)' i. Each'of'us'has'theory'about'which'personality'characteristics'go' together!implicit'personality'theories' ii. E.g.:'hardworking'people'also'honest;' average'intelligent'is'most' friendly' iii. Implicit'personality'theory'is'inaccurate,'result'to'misunderstanding ' d. Projection' i. Projection'is'when'you'don't'know'others,'we'tend'to'attribute'one’s' own'thoughts'and'feelings'to'others' ii. Often,'people'with'similar' backgrounds'or'interests'do'think'and'feel' similarly' iii. For'threatening'or'undesirable'characteristics,'projection'can'serve'as'a' form'on'perceptual'defence'(I'am'dishonest,'I'thought'others'are' dishonest'to'excuse'myself) !used'to'adjust'the'perceiver’s'thiev ery'' e. Stereotyping' i. Stereotyping'is'the'tendency'to'generalize'about'people'in'a'social' category'and'ignore'variations'among'them ' ii. You'favor'the'group'that'you'are'a'member'of ' iii. Stereotyping'helps'us'in'developing'of'ambiguous'targets ' iv. Language'affects'stereotyp ing' v. Knowing'a'person’s'occupation'or'field'of'study,'we'make'assumptions' about'his'or'her'behaviour'and'personality'(engineer !cold'calculating)' vi. Most'stereotyping'are'inaccurate,'especially'when'we'use'them'to' develop'perceptions'of'specific'individuals ' 6. Attribution:(perceiving(causes(and(motives ( !Attribution'is'the'process'by'which'we'assign'causes'or'motives'to'explain' people’s'behaviour' !Dispositional'attributions'(personal'reason):'person’s'unique'characteristic' which'is'responsible'for'the'behaviour'and' the'behaviour'reflects'the'true' person' !Situational'attributions:'external'situations'affect'person’s'behaviour ' a. Consistency'cues' i. High'consistency'leads'to'dispositional'attributions'(if'you'always'late,' you'are'a'lazy'person,'not'due'to'bad'weather) ' ii. Low'consistency'leads'to'situational'attribution'(late'once,'maybe'due' to'bad'traffic0' b. Consensus'cues' i. It'reflects'how'a'person’s'behaviour'compares'with'that'of'others ' ii. LowPconsensus'behaviour'leads'to'more'dispositional'attributions' (people'generally'wont'bring'work'to'home,'but'you'do'differently'than' others!dispositional)' c. Distinctiveness'cues' i. It'reflects'the'extent'to'which'a'person'engages'in'some'behaviours' across'a'variety'of'situations ' ii. When'a'same'behaviour'occurs'across'a'variety'of'situations,'it'lacks' distinctiveness!dispositional'attribution' iii. If'different'behaviours'occur'for'different'situations !situational' d. Attribution'in'action' e. Biases'in'attribution' i. Fundamental'attribution'error ' 1. When'attribute'others’'behaviours,'we'tend'to'attribute'more' on'dispositional' ii. ActorPobserver'effect' 1. Observer'emphasizes'on'dispositions'(you'see'A'is'always' late!you'attribute'him'as'a'lazy'person,'not'due'to'bad'traffic) ' 2. Actor'emphasizes'their'own'behaviour'more'situations'(when' you'are'always'late,'you'always'say'due'to'bad'w eather)' 3. For'positive'events,'actor'makes'dispositional'attributi on'while' observer'makes'a'situational'attribution'(I'get'90,'because'im' smart,'but'others'think'Im'lucky.) ' 4. For'negative'events,'actors'make'situational'attributions'while' observer'makes'dispositional'attribution'(I'failed,'because'the' text'was'too'hard,'others'think'Im'stupid) ' iii. SelfPserving'bias' 1. People'have'a'tendency'to'take'credit'and'responsibility'for' successful'outcomes'of'their'behaviour'and'to'deny'credit'and' responsibility'for'failures' 2. It'reflects'intentional'selfPpromotion'or'excuse'making ' 7. Person(perception(and(workforce(diversity ( a. The'changing'workplace' b. Valuing'diversity' c. Stereotypes'and'workforce'diversity ' !Stereotype'threat:'when'member'of'a'social'group'feel'they'might'be' judged'or'treated'according'to'a'stereotype'and'that'their'behaviour' and/or'performance'will'confirm'the'stereotype ' !Mainly'about'ethnicity/race'and'gender ' i. Racial,'ethic,'and'religious'ste reotypes' 1. Personal'experience'is'unnecessary'for'stereotype'formation ' 2. Attributions'have'racial'biases'(black Pamerican’s'success'is' more'attributed'to'situational,'where'white Pamerican’s'success' is'more'dispositional)' 3. If'an'organization'has'discrimination'environment,'it'has'more' negative'problems'about'discrimination ' i
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit