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Department
Management and Organizational Studies
Course
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Professor
Matt Mc Larnon
Semester
Winter

Description
Organizational Behaviour Appendix Summary Notes The Basics of Organizational Behaviour • Hypothesis: a formal statement of the expected relationship between two  variables • Variables: measures that can take on two or more values • Types of Variables o Independent variable: the variable that predicts or is the cause of  variation in a dependent variable o Dependent variable: the variable that is expected to vary as a result of  changes to the independent variable o Moderating variable: a variable that affects the nature of the relationship  between an independent and a dependent variable such that the  relationships depends on the level of the moderating variable  Like contingency variables in that they indicate when an  independent variable is most likely to be related to a dependent  variable o Mediating variable: a variable that intervenes or explains the relationship  between an independent and a dependent variable • Measurement of Variables o Reliability: an index of the consistency of a research subject’s responses o Validity: an index of the extent to which a measure truly reflects what it is  supposed to measure o Convergent validity: when there is a strong relationship between  different measures of the same variable o Discriminant validity: when there is weak relationship between measures  of different variables o Three basic kinds of research techniques:  Observation  Correlation  Experimentation • Observational Techniques o Observational research: research that examines the natural activities of  people in an organizational setting by listening to what they say and  watching what they do o Participant observation: observational research in which the researcher  becomes a functioning member of the organizational unit being studied  The researcher is making a conscious bet that the advantages of  participation outweigh the problems of influencing the behaviour  and objectivity  The subjects need not know that they are being observed o Direct observation: observational research in which the researcher  observes organizational behaviour without taking part in the studied  activity   There are many situations where the introduction of a new person  would severely disrupt the nature of the activities in that setting  There are many job tasks that a trained behavioural scientist could  not be expected to learn for research purposes  Participation observation places rather sever limitations on the  observers’ opportunity to record information o Both direct and participant observation capture the depth, breadth,  richness, spontaneity, and realism of OB • Correlational Techniques o Correlational research: research that attempts to measure variables  precisely and examine relationships among these variables without  introducing change into the research setting  Sacrifices some of the breadth and richness of observational  techniques for more precision of measurement and greater control  Differ due to the nature of the data researchers collect and the 
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