MOS 2181 OB Detailed Textbook Notes Chapter 5

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Department
Management and Organizational Studies
Course
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Professor
Hayden Woodley
Semester
Spring

Description
Chapter(5(Theories(of(Work(Motivation( Great(Little(Box(Company,(its(employees(are(highly(motivated(due(to(ongoing( training,(career(and(personal(management,(and(above(average(compensation( and(benefits.(It(implements($10(program(for(any(good(behaviours(of(employees.( 15%(of(previous(month’s(profits(are(shared(with(employees(regardless(of(their( position.(( 1. Why&study&motivation? & a. Need(for(increased(productivity(to(be(globally(competitive ( b. Rapid(change(in(contemporary(organizations( !need(flexible(plans(for( motivation( c. A(good(motivation(plan(should(have: ( i. Recognize(human(diversity(and(consider(that(the(same(conditions(will( not(motivate(everyone( ii. Explain(how(it(is(that(some(people(seem(to(be(self Omotivated,(while( others(need(externalOmotivation( iii. Consider(social(aspect(of(h uman(beings!people’s(motivation(is(often( affected(by(how(they(see(others(being(treated ( 2. What&is&motivation? & a. Basic(characteristics(of(motivation ( i. Effort( 1. Motivation(is(the(effort(a(person(exhibits(on(the(job ( ii. Persistence( 1. Individuals(exhibit(in(applying(effort(to(their(work(tasks((just( do(oneOday(good(job)( iii. Direction( 1. Do(workers(channel(persistent(effort(in(a(direction(that( benefits(the(organization ( 2. Work(hard(and(smart ( iv. Goals( 1. All(motivated(behaviour(has(some(goal(or(objective(toward( which(it(is(directed ( 2. Motivated(people(act(to(enhance(organizational(objectives((or( opposite,(motivated(to(fight(against(organization’s(goal) ( b. Extrinsic(and(intrinsic(motivation(and(self Odetermination(theory( i. Intrinsic(motivation:(selfOapplied!motivated(automatically ( ii. Extrinsic(motivation:(pa y,(fringe(benefits,(company(policies,(and( supervisions( iii. When(extrinsic(rewards(contingent(on(performance(makes(people( believe(their(performance(is(controlled(by(the(environment( ( iv. SelfOdetermination(theory:(explain(what(motivate(people(and(whether( motivation(is(autonomous(or(controlled( 1. Autonomous(motivation!people(are(motivated(by(intrinsic( factors;(they(are(in(control(of(their(motivation !their( motivation(is(self Oregulated!they(find(it’s(interesting(to(do( 2. Controlled(motivation!people(are(motivated(to(obtain(a( desired(consequence(or(extrinsic(reward !externally(regulated( 3. Autonomous(motivation(has(a(facilitated(performance,( especially(in(complex(tasks;(it(also(increases(positive(work( attitudes(and(psychological(well Obeing( c. Motivation(and(performance ( !Motivation(is(not(the(only(factor(determines(performance ( !Intelligence((cognitive(ability(and(emotional)(affects(performance( ( i. General(cognitive(ability ( 1. Used(as(intelligence(or(mental(ability ( 2. General(cognitive(ability !person’s(basic(information O processing(capacities(and( cognitive(resources((verbal,(spatial,( and(reasoning(abilities( 3. General(cognitive(ability(predicts(learning,(training,(and(career( success(and(job(performance(( 4. Both(motivation(and(general(cognitive(ability(are(necessary(for( performance( ii. Emotional(intelligence( 1. It(deals(with(an(individual’s(ability(to(understand(and(manage( his(or(her(own(and(other’s(feelings(and(emotions ( 2. Involves(the(ability(to(perceive(and(express(emotion,(assimilate( emotion(in(thought,(understand(and(reason(about(emotions,( and(manage(emotions(in(oneself(and(others( 3. Individuals(high(in(EI(are(able(to(identify(and(understand(the( meanings(of(emotions(and(to(manage(and(regulate(their( emotions(as(a(basis(for(problem(solving,(reasoning,(thinking,( and(action( 4. Peter(Salovey(and(John(Mayer(created(the(term (emotional( intelligence,(and(hierarchy(of(emotional(intelligence: ( a. Perceiving(emotions(accurately(in(oneself(and(others( (e.g.(facial(expression,(nonOverbal(behaviour)( b. Using(emotions(to(facilitate(thinking !one(is(able(to( use(emotions(in(functional(ways,(such (as(making( decisions(and(other(cognitive(process((creativity,( integrative(thinking,(and(inductive(reasoning)_( c. Understanding(emotions,(emotional(languages,(and( signals(conveyed(by(emotions(!able(to(understand( emotional(information,(the(determinants(and( consequences(of(emotions,(and(how(emotions(evolve( and(change(overtime!you(know(not(to(ask(somebody( who(is(in(a(bad(mood(for(a(favour ( d. Managing(emotions(so(as(to(attain(specific( goals!ability(to(manage(one’s(own(and(other’s( feelings(and(emotions(as(well(as(emotional( relationships((highest(level(of(EI) !able(to(regulate,( adjust,(and(change(his(or(her(own(emotions(as(well(as( other’s(emotions(to(suit(the(situation( !stay(calm( when(feeling(angry(or(upset ( 5. Emotional(intelligence(is(not(only(positively(related(to(job( performance,(but(also(predicts(job(performance(above(and( beyond(cognitive(ability(and(big(five(personality(variables ( d. MotivationOperformance(relationship ( i. Luck,(intelligence(level,(understanding(of(tasks,(motivation(all(affect( performance(( 3. Need&theories&of&work& motivation& !Need(theories(attempt(to(specify(the(kinds(of(needs(people(have(and(the( conditions(under(which(they(will(be(motivated(to(satisfy(these(needs ( !Needs!Behaviour!Incentives(and(goals( a. Maslow’s(hierarchy(of(needs ( i. Needs(hierarchy((from(low(to(high) ( 1. Physiological(needs((needs(to(survive !food,(water,(oxygen,( shelter)!minimum(pay(for(survival ( 2. Safety(needs((needs(for(security,(stability,(freedom(from( anxiety,(and(structured(and(ordered(environment) !safe( working(conditions,(fair(and(sensible(rules(and(regul ations.(job( security,(comfortable(work(environment,(pension(and( insurance(plan,(pay(above(minimum(needed(for(survive ( 3. Belongingness(needs((social(interaction,(affection,(love,( companionship,(and(friendship)(!opportunity(to(interact(with( others(on(the(job,(friendly(and(supportive(supervision,( opportunity(for(teamwork,(and(opportunity(to(develop(new( social(relationships( 4. Esteem(needs((feelings(of(adequacy,(competence,( independence,(strength,(and(confidence,(and(reorganization( from(others)!let(employees(master(the(task(to(feel( achievement(and(responsibility,(promotions,(prestigious(titles ( 5. SelfOactualizations((desire(to(develop(one’s(true(potential)( !absorbing(jobs(with(the(potential(for(creativity(and(growth( as(well(as(relaxation(of(structure(to(permit(self Odevelopment( and(personal(progression( ii. How(it(works?( 1. LowestOlevel(unsatisfied(need(category(has(the(greatest( motivating(potential ( 2. Motivation(depends(on(the(person’s(position(in(the(need( hierarchy(( 3. When(lower(level(need(is(satisfied,(move(to(next(level ( 4. A(satisfied(need(is(no(longer(an(effective(motivator( 5. We(will(never(gratify(self Oactualization( b. Alderfer’s(ERG(theory( i. Need(systems( 1. Existence(needs((some(material(substance(or(condition,(such(as( physiological(needs(and(safety(needs(that(are(satisfied(by( material(conditions(rather(than(interpersonal(relations)( !food,(shelter,(pay,(and(safe(working(conditions( 2. Relatedness(needs((open(communication(and(the(exchange(of( thoughts(and(feelings(with(other(organizational( members!belongingness(and(esteem !anything(involves( feedback(from(others)((( 3. Growth(needs((strong(personal(involvement(in(the(work( setting,(full(utilization(of(one’s(skills(and(abilities(and(the( creative(development(of(new(skills(and(abilities) ( ii. LowerOlevel(needs(are(satisfied,(the(desire(to(have(higher Olevel(needs( satisfied(will(increase((concrete(needs(to(less(concrete(needs) ( iii. Growth(needs(will(become(more(compelling(and(desired(as(they(are( fulfilled( iv. Some(people(might(seek(relatedness(or(growth(even(though(their( existence(needs(are(not(gratified ( v. If(the(higherOlevel(needs(are(ungratified,(individuals(will(increase(their( desire(for(the(gratification(of(lower Olevel(needs((can’t(make( friend!focus(on(making(more(money)( vi. I.e.(lowerOlevel(needs(can(substitute(ungratified(higherOlevel(needs( c. McClelland’s(theory(of(needs ( i. Specific(personalities(need(specific(motivators( ii. Three(needs(based(on(personalities ( 1. Need(for(achievement,(people: ( a. Have(a(strong(desire(to(perform(challenging(tasks ( b. Prefer(personal(responsibility(can(be(taken(for( outcomes( c. Tend(to(set(moderately(difficult(goals(that( provide(for( calculated(risks( d. Need(performance(feedback ( e. Concern(with(innovation(and(long Oterm(goal( achievement( f. They(do(challenging(tasks(to(satisfy(their(intrinsic( need( g. Equivalent(to(need(of(growth(or(self Oactualization( 2. Need(for(affiliation(( a. Strong(desire(to(establish(and(maintain(friendly,( compatible(interpersonal(relationships ( b. Social(networking(quickly(and(tend
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