MOS 2181 chapter 4.pdf

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Management and Organizational Studies
Course Code
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Victoria Digby

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MOS 2181 Chapter 4 I. What Are Values? Values can be defined as a "broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others." Not everyone holds the same values. Values may be classified into intellectual, economic, social, aesthetic, and political categories. A. Occupational Differences in Values Members of different occupational groups espouse different values. Salespeople rank social values less than the average person, while professors value "equal opportunity for all" more than the average person. People tend to choose occupations and organizations that correspond to their values. B. Values Across Cultures Cross-cultural differences often contribute to failed business negotiations. As well, research shows that anywhere from 16 to 40 percent of managers who receive foreign assignments terminate them early because they perform poorly or do not adjust to the culture. At the root of many of these problems might be a lack of appreciation of basic differences in work-related values across cultures. Work Centrality. Different cultures value work differently. People for whom work is a central life interest tend to work longer hours. Thus, Japanese managers tend to work longer hours than their North American or British counterparts. This illustrates how cross-cultural differences in work centrality can lead to adjustment problems for foreign employees and managers. Hofstede's Study. Geert Hofstede, a social scientist, studied over 116,000 IBM employees in forty countries about their work-related values. His results show that differences occurred across cultures in four basic dimensions of work-related values: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity, and individualism/collectivism. Subsequent work resulted in a fifth dimension, the long-term/short-term orientation.  Power distance is the extent to which an unequal distribution of power is accepted by society members. In small power distance cultures, inequality is minimized, superiors are accessible, and power differences are downplayed. In large power distance societies, inequality is accepted as natural, superiors are inaccessible, and power differences are highlighted.  Uncertainty avoidance is the extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations. Strong uncertainty avoidance cultures stress rules and regulations, hard work, conformity, and security. Cultures with weak uncertainty avoidance are less concerned with rules, conformity, and security, and hard work is not seen as a virtue. However, risk taking is valued.  Another cultural value that differs across cultures is known as masculinity/femininity. More masculine cultures clearly differentiate gender roles, support the dominance of men, and stress economic performance. More feminine cultures accept fluid gender roles, stress sexual equality, and stress quality of life.  Individualistic cultures stress independence, individual initiative and privacy. Collective cultures favour interdependence and loyalty to family or clan.  Another cultural value that differs across cultures is known as long-term/short-term orientation. Cultures with a long-term orientation tend to stress persistence, perseverance, thrift, and close attention to status differences. Cultures with a short- term orientation stress personal steadiness and stability, face-saving, and social niceties. C. Implications of Cultural Variation  Exporting OB Theories. An important message from the cross-cultural study of values is that organizational behaviour theories, research, and practices from North America might not translate well to other societies, even the one located just south of Texas .  Importing OB Theories. As well, not all theories and practices that concern organizational behaviour are perfected in North America or even in the West. Understanding cultural value differences can enable organizations to successfully import management practices by tailoring the practice to the home culture's concerns.  Appreciating Global Customers. An appreciation of cross-cultural differences in values is essential to understanding the needs and tastes of customers or clients around the world.  Developing Global Employees. Given these differences in cultural values, it is important for managers to take care when exporting or importing OB theories and appreciating global customers. An awareness of cross-cultural differences in values can help managers better appreciate global customers and develop global employees. Companies need to select, train, and develop employees to have a much better appreciation of differences in cultural values and the implications of these differences for behaviour in organizations. II. What Are Attitudes? An attitude is a fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person, or category of people. Attitudes are tendencies to respond to the target of the attitude. Thus, attitudes often influence our behaviour toward some object, situation, person, or group. Attitudes are a function of what we think and what we feel. That is, attitudes are the product of a related belief and value. Belief + Value = Attitude > Behaviour. Most attempts at attitude change are initiated by a communicator who tries to use persuasion of some form to modify the beliefs or values of an audience that supports a currently held attitude. Persuasion that is designed to modify or emphasize certain values is emotionally oriented, whereas persuasion designed to modify or emphasize certain beliefs is rationally oriented. III. What Is Job Satisfaction? Job satisfaction refers to a collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs. Facet satisfaction refers to the tendency for an employee to be more or less satisfied with various facets of the job. Overall satisfaction refers to a person's attitude toward his or her job that cuts across the various facets. Job satisfaction is measured by the Job Descriptive Index (JDI) and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). Both of these questionnaires can give effective measurements of satisfaction. IV. What Determines Job Satisfaction? When workers complete the JDI or the MSQ, we often find differences in the average scores across jobs and by individuals performing the same job in a given organization. For example, two nurses who work side by side might indicate radically different satisfaction in response to the MSQ item "The chance to do things for other people". How does this happen? A. Discrepancy According to discrepancy theory, job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between the job outcomes wanted and the outcomes that are perceived to be obtained. Thus, a person wanting to be a baseball pitcher might be dissatisfied with the team when placed in an outfield position. In general, employees who have more of their job-related desires met will report more overall job satisfaction. B. Fairness In addition to the discrepancy between the outcomes people receive and those they desire, the other factor that determines job satisfaction is fairness.  Distributive fairness (often called distributive justice) occurs when people receive what they think they deserve from their jobs. Equity theory suggests that job satisfaction stems from a comparison of the inputs that one invests in a job and the outcomes one receives in comparison with the inputs and outcomes of another person or group. Inputs consist of anything that people give up, offer, or trade to their organization in exchange for outcomes. This might include factors such as education, training, seniority, hard work, and high-quality work. Outcomes are factors that an organization distributes to employees in exchange for their inputs. These might include pay, benefits, promotions, recognition or anything else of value to employees. In general, people who work harder and are better educated than their peers expect higher rewards. Should these not be attained, the hard workers will be upset and angry over the lack of fair treatment and experience inequity. Inequity is a dissatisfying state of affairs and leads to job dissatisfaction. Thus, the equitable distribution of work outcomes contributes to job satisfaction by providing for feelings of distributive fairness.  Procedural fairness (often called procedural justice) occurs when the process used to determine work outcomes is seen as reasonable. It has to do with the process that led to those outcomes. In allocating outcomes, the following factors contribute to perceptions of procedural fairness: Adequate reasons for a decision; consistent procedures used over time and across people; accurate information is used; two-way communication is used; and an appeals system. These factors will contribute to a perception of fairness and help workers to believe they are getting a "fair shake." Procedural fairness seems especially likely to provoke dissatisfaction when people also see distributive fairness as being low.  Interactional fairness (often called interactional justice) occurs when people feel that they have received respectful and informative communication about some outcome. Interactional fairness is important because it is possible for fair outcomes or procedures to be perceived as unfair when they are inadequately or uncaringly explained. People who experience procedural unfairness tend to be dissatisfied with the “system.” People who experience interactional unfairness are more likely to be dissatisfied with their boss. Procedural and interactional fairness can to some extent offset the negative effects of distributive unfairness. C. Disposi
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