Chapter 2 Summarized

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Department
Management and Organizational Studies
Course
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Professor
Hayden Woodley
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 2 – Personality and Learning What is Personality? Personality: The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual  interacts with his or her environment Personality and Organizational Behaviour Disposition Approach: Individuals possess stable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes and  behaviours Situational Approach: Characteristics of the organizational setting influence people’s attitudes and  behaviour Interactionist Approach: Individuals’ attitudes and behaviour are a function of both dispositions and the  situation Trait Activation Theory: Traits lead to certain behaviours only when the situation makes the need for the  trait sailent The Five­Factor Model of Personality - Extraversion  - Emotional Stability/Neuroticism - Agreeableness - Conscientiousness - Openness to Experience Research Evidence Locus of Control: A set of beliefs about whether one’s behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or  external forces Self­Monitoring: The extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social  settings and relationships Self­Esteem: The degree to which a person has a positive self­evaluation Behaviour Plasticity Theory: People with low self­esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and  social influences than those who have high self­esteem New Developments in Personality and Organizational Behaviour Positive and Negative Affectivity Positive Affectivity: Propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a positive light Negative Affectivity: Propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a negative light Proactive Personality Proactive Behaviour: Taking initiative to improve current circumstances or creating new ones Proactive Personality: A stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take personal initiative  across a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in one’s environment General Self­Efficacy (GSE): A general trait that refers to an individual’s belief in his or her ability to  perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations  Core Self­Evaluations: A broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect the  evaluations people hold about themselves and their self­worth What is Learning? Learning: A relatively permanent change in behaviour potential that occurs due to practice or experience What Do Employees Learn? Operant Learning Theory Operant Learning: Learning by which the subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain  consequences Increasing the Probability of Behaviour Reinforcement: The process by which stimuli strengthen behaviours Positive Reinforcement: The application or addition of stimulus that increases or maintains 
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