Chapter 3 Summarized

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Department
Management and Organizational Studies
Course
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Professor
Hayden Woodley
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 3 – Perception, Attribution, and Diversity What is Perception? The process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment Components of Perception The Perceiver Perceptual Defence: The tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant  emotions The Target The Situation Social Identity Theory: A theory that states that people from perceptions of themselves based on their  personal characteristics and memberships in social categories A Model of the Perceptual Process Basic Biases in Person Perception Primacy and Recency Effects Primacy Effect: The tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions Recency Effect: The tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions Reliance on Central Traits Central Traits: Personal Characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest to a perceiver Implicit Personality Theories Implicit Personality Theories: Personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics  together Projection Projection: The tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others Stereotyping: The tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category and ignore variations  among them Attribution: Perceiving Causes and Motives Attribution: The process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain people’s behaviour Dispositional Attributions: Explanations for behaviour based on an actor’s personality or intellect Situational Attributions: Explanations for behaviour based on an actor’s external situation or environment Consistency Cues: Attribution cues that reflect how a person engages in a behaviour over time Consensus Cues: Attribution cues that reflect how a person’s behaviour compares with that of others Distinctiveness Cues: Attribution cues that reflect that extent to which a person engages in some  behaviour across a variety of situations  Attribution in Action Biases in Attribution Fundamental Attribution Error: The tendency to overemphasize dispositional explanations for  behaviour at the expense of situational explanations Actor­Observer Effect: The propensity for actors and observers to view the causes of the actor’s  behaviour differently Self­Serving Bias: The tendency to take credit for successful outcomes and to deny responsibility for  failures Person Perception and Workforce Diversity The Chang
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