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Department
Management and Organizational Studies
Course
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Professor
Victoria Digby
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 1 – ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND MANAGEMENT • Organizations: Social inventions for accomplishing goals through group effort. • Organizational behavior is concerned with o People and managing them to work effectively. o How organizations can survive and adapt to change. o How to get people to practice effective team work. • Behaviors necessary for survival and adaptation are… 1. Be motivated to join and remain in the organization; 2. Carry out their basic work reliably, in terms of productivity, quality and service; 3. Be willing to continuously learn and upgrade their knowledge and skills; 4. Be flexible and innovative. • Firms must “Get innovative or get dead.” – Tom Peters • Organizational behavior: The attitudes and beliefs of individuals and groups in organizations. • Goals of organizational behavior: 1. Predicting organizational behavior 2. Explaining organizational behavior 3. Managing organizational behavior • Management: The art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others. There were two views of the “correct” way to manage an organization: 1. The classical view and bureaucracy 2. The human relations movement and a critique of bureaucracy The Classical View and Bureaucracy: • Advocates: experienced managers and consultants • Early 1900s • Advocated a very high degree of specialization of labor and of coordination • Each department tended to own affairs, centralized decision making • “Bureaucracy” comes from Max Weber • Bureaucracy = means of rationally managing complex organizations o Strict chain of command, each member reports to just one supervisor o Set of detailed rules o Strict specialization o Centralization of power at top of organization The Human Relations Movement and a Critique of Bureaucracy: • Hawthorne studies: illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustment. • Called attention to dysfunctional aspects of classical management/bureaucracy • Advocated more people-oriented styles of management that catered more to the social and psychological needs of employees • Critique addressed several problems: o Strict specialization = incompatible with human needs for growth and achievement  can lead to employee alienation o Strong centralization fail to take advantage of ideas of lower-level employees. o Strict/impersonal rules lead members to adopt minimum level of performance o Causes employees to lose sight of goals of organization The contingency approach: An approach to management that recognizes that there is no one best way to manage, and that an appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situation
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