Textbook Chap. 2 Notes

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Victoria Digby

CHAPTER 2 – PERSONALITY AND LEARNING Personality: The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment. Five-Factor Model of Personality (FFM) 1. Extraversion: Extent to which someone is outgoing vs. shy. 2. Emotional stability/Neuroticism: Degree to which someone had appropriate emotional control. 3. Agreeableness: Extent to which someone is friendly and approachable. 4. Conscientiousness: Degree to which someone is responsible and achievement oriented. 5. Openness to experience: Extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas. • All factors above are relatively independent of each other and hold up cross- culturally. Locus of control: A set of beliefs about whether one’s behavior is controlled mainly by internal or external forces. Behavioral plasticity theory: People with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those who have high-self esteem. Five personality variable important for OB: 1. Positive and negative affectivity (PA and NA) • May have a genetic basis • Positive affectivity: Propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a positive light. • Negative affectivity: Propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a negative light. • Can influence people’s job attitudes and behavior. • People higher on PA report higher job satisfaction, are more creative at work, and are less stressed. 2. Proactive personality • Taking initiative to improve current circumstances or creating new ones. 3. General self-efficacy (GSE) • A general trait that refers to an individual’s belief in his or her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations. • A motivational trait, not an affective trait. • If you have experienced many successes, you probably have a higher GSE. 4. Core self-evaluations • A broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect the evaluations people hold about themselves and their self-worth. • Four traits that make up one’s core self-evaluation: o Self-esteem o General self-efficacy o Locus of control o Neuroticism (emotional stability) Learning: A relatively permanent change in behavior potential that occurs due to practice or experience. Operant Learning Theory • B.F. Skinner. • Rats learned to pull lever to get food. • The subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain consequences. • Operant learned behavior is controlled by the consequences that follow it. • Can be used to increase probability of undesirable behaviors. • Reinforcement: The process by which stimuli strengthen behavior. • Positive reinforcement: The application or addition of a stimulus that increases or maintains the probability of some behavior. o Pellets were positive reinforcement. • Negative reinforcement: The removal of a stimulus that, in turn, increases or maintains the probability of some
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