Textbook Chap. 3 Notes

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Western University
Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Victoria Digby

CHAPTER 3 – PERCEPTION, ATTRIBUTION, AND JUDGEMENT OF OTHERS Perception: The process of interpreting the messages of our sense to provides order and meaning to the environment. Perception has three components: 1. The perceiver o Influenced by experience o Perceptual defense: The tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions, i.e. see what we want to see. 2. The target 3. The situation o Perception of the target changes with the situation. Social Identity Theory People form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships n social categories. • Our personal identity is based on our unique personal characteristics, like interest, abilities, etc. • Our social identity is based on our perception that we belong to various social groups, like gender, nationality, religion, etc. Perceptual selectivity, constancy, and consistency. Perceptual biases: • Primary and recency effects o Primary effect: The tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues or first impressions. o Recency effect: The tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions. • Reliance on central traits o Central traits: Personal characteristics of a target person that are part of a particular interest to a perceiver. • Implicit Personality Theories o Personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together. • Projection o The tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others. • Stereotyping o The tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category and ignore variations among them. Dispositional attributions: Explanations for behavior based on an actor’s personality or intellect. Situational attributions: Explanations f
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