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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B

Chapter 2Personality and Learning Personality is the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environmentPersonality determined in a complex way by genetic predisposition and by one longterm learning history The role of personality in organizational behavior has often been debated in what is known as the personsituation debate This has led to three approachesThe dispositional approach o Focuses on individuals dispositions and personalities o Individuals possess stable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes and behaviors The situational approach o Characteristics of the organizational setting such as rewards and punishment influence peoples feelings attitudes and behaviour o Many studies have shown that situational factors such as the characteristics of work tasks predict job satisfactionThe interactionist approach o Organizational behaviour is a function of both dispositions and the situation o To predict and understand organizational behaviour we need to know something about an individuals personality and the work setting Important implication of interactionist approach is that some personality characteristics are useful in certain organizational situations thus there is no one best personality The FiveFactor Model of Personality Five basic but general dimensions that describe personality Extraversionthis is the extent to which a person is outgoing vs shy Important for jobs that require interpersonal interaction and where being sociable assertive energetic and ambitious is important for success Emotional StabilityNeuroticism the degree to which a person has appropriate emotional control Persons high on emotional stability will have more effective interactions with coworkers and customers as they tend to be more calm and secure Agreeablenessthe extent to which a person is friendly and approachable Contributes to job performance in jobs that require interaction and involve helping cooperating and nurturing others as well as in jobs that involve teamwork and cooperation Conscientiousnessthe degree to which a person is responsible and achievement orientated Important for job performance on most jobs given the tendency towards hard work and achievement Openness to Experiencethe extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas Important for jobs that involve learning and creativity given the tendency to be intellectual curious and imaginativeLocus of Control is a set of beliefs about whether ones behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external forcesFate and Luck vs Selfinititative and free will Internals are more satisfied with their jobs earn more money and achieve higher organizational positions Internals perceive less stress cope with stress better and engage in more careful career planning
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