Chapter 4 Review.docx

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Western University
Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B

Chapter 4Values Attitudes and Work Behaviour Values are a broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others Values have to do with what we consider good and bad Values are motivational and very general People tend to hold values structured around such factors as achievement power autonomy conformity tradition and social welfare Generation Difference in Values Four distinctive generations in the workplace today Traditionalists 19221945 Respectful of authority and a high work ethic Boomers 19461964 Optimistic workaholics Gen X 19651980 Cynical confident and pragmatic Gen Y 19812000 Confidant social demanding of feedback and somewhat unfocused Most research points to more similarities than differences in values across generations Some indication that Gen X and Y are more inclined to value status and rapid career growth than are boomers Gen Ys especially value autonomy and Xers compared to boomers are less loyal more wanting of promotion and more inclined toward worklife balance Generational differences in work values or the way values are expressed is important because a good fit between a persons values and those of the organization personorganization fit leads to more positive work attitudes and behaviours Cultural Differences in Values There are basic differences in workrelated values across cultures A lack of understanding of crosscultural differences can cause foreign assignments to terminate early and business negotiations to fail Work Centrality Work is valued differently across cultures There are crossnational differences in the extent to which people perceive work as a central life interest People for whom work was a central life interest work more hours Crosscultural differences in work centrality can lead to adjustment problems for foreign employees and managers Geert Hofstedes Study questioned over 116000 IBM employees in 40 countries about their workrelated values He discovered four basic dimensions along which workrelated values differed across cultures Power distance Uncertainty avoidance Masculinityfemininity and Individualismcollectivism Power Distance is the extent to which society members accept an unequal distribution of power In small power distance cultures inequality is minimized superiors are accessible and power differences are downplayed In large power distance cultures inequality is accepted as natural superiors are inaccessible and power differences are highlighted Uncertainty Avoidance is The extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations Strong uncertainty avoidance cultures stress rules and regulations hard work conformity and security Cultures with weak uncertainty avoidance are less concerned with rules conformity and security and hard work is not seen as a virtue and risk taking is valued Masculine cultures clearly differentiate gender roles support the dominance of men and stress economic performance Feminine cultures accept fluid gender roles stress sexual equality and stress quality of life Individualistic societies stress independence individual initiative and privacy Collective cultures favour interdependence and loyalty to family or clan Cultures with a longterm orientation stress persistence perseverance thrift and close attention to status differences Cultures with a shortterm orientation stress personal steadiness and stability facesaving and social niceties Implications of Cultural Variation Exporting OB TheoriesOrganizational behaviour theories research and practices from North America might not translate well to other societies A good fit between company practices and the host culture is important
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