Chapter 2 Research Methods.docx

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 3305A/B
Suzanne Kearns

Lecture 1: Chapter 2 RESEARCH METHODS September 11, 2013 PURPOSE OF HUMAN FACTORS  Understand limitations of human/systems (aviation) interaction  o Reduce error o Increase productivity o Maximize safety o Enhance comfort  Based on human o Physiology o Psychology o Sociology  Maximize safe and efficient operations o Teaching is the best way to learn HUMAN FACTORS  All about improving safety + efficiency + user satisfaction o Human vs. machine… sometimes  Understanding  Fatigue/limitations  Etc.  Through modifying o Equipment (i.e. 6 pack) o Task (i.e. checklists, SOPs – efficient & folding laundry – inefficient) o Environment (i.e. temperature, lighting, comfort) o Selection (i.e. select the one that is most likely to succeed – aptitudes; conscientiousness is key for pilots)  3 domains very important: knowledge + capabilities + emotion  Skills + knowledge + attitude & trying to find it in a raw state to mould o Training (i.e. providing the correct training)  Connection between human and another component and machine  Bad human factors involves a breakdown in interaction between human and systems BAD DESIGNS  What examples did you think of? What would be an effective HF approach o She shows a bunch of pictures and asks which of the modifications should be done (based on your reasoning – BS) RESEARCH IN HF  How the human mind + physiology  impact system performance  Because HF is multi-disciplinary the research is not as simple as other fields o Skill? Age? Fatigue? Circadian rhythm + time of day? Many factors to be considered. THE SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE  “What good fortune for those in power that people do not think.” CRITICATHINKING101 1. Do not blindly accept arguments or conclusions. 2. Be aware of confounds!  Example: If I do a sample outside SSC? Problems: size, demographics, etc.  “What do you mean?” 3. Examine all assumptions  “How do you know that?” 4. Evaluate evidence 5. Are the conclusions supported? THE RESEARCH GOALS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH  Describe (What happens?)  Explain (Why?)  Predict before it happens(What’s next?)  Control (Can we change it?) RESEARCH STRATEGIES  How do human factors describe, predict, and explain behavioural and mental processes? o Qualitative o Quantitative  Example: she’s trying to see if course is effective o Quantitative: quiz scores o Qualitative: what do you think/what did you learn? WHY USE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH?  Scientific Findings are: o Clear o Verifiable (replication) o Public (publication) o Cumulative (grow + build on each other) o Honest (cheating to boost reputation  bias results) ETHICS OF RESEARCH  Confidentiality (Full disclosure of benefits + harms)  Limit deception (I’m not lying)  Cause no harm (I’m not going to harm anyone)  Informed consent (They agreed & they meet [legal] requirements & can’t entice someone w/ terms that will skew results)  Debriefing (This is what happened)  Protection of humans/animals M ILGRAMEXPERIMENT  Might cause people to think they actually killed someone  negative emotions  depression, anxiety, anger, etc. o “I’m capable of killing another person…” BASIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH  Basic researcdevelopment of theory+ principles+ findings that generalize over wide range of ppl+ tasks+ setting o Does not answer one particular question  Applied researchdevelopment of theories + principles + findings that are relatively specific with respect to particular populations + tasks + products system and/or environments
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