Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8 Full Textbook notes - most important information for Exam 2

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Western University
Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 3344A/B
Jody Merritt

CH 5 Chemical Agents and Biological Agents 1312011 52100 PM Bioterrorism in Canada y After September 112001 people in the US received letters that had anthrax spores y Inhaling anthrax results in death in 50 of cases y Traffic accident in Winnipeg in March 2005 resulted in mobilization of a hazardous materials team when it was learned that the Federal Express truck involved in the accident was transporting containers of anthrax y Events like this illustrate the possibility of a biological or chemical agent being released and the need to implement effective emergency procedures Terms Chemical Agents hazards created by one or more chemicals Biohazard hazard created by exposure to biological material Ambient allencompassing condition associated with a given environment usually a composite of inputs from sources all around us Toxicity ability to cause injury to human biological tissue Aerosols airborne respirable contaminants such as liquid droplets or solid particulate dispersed in air that are of a fine enough particle size 01 micrometres to 100 micrometres to remain suspended for a time Routes of Entry respiration inhalation skin absorption ingestion and skin penetration Turbinates spiral or spongy sections of the respiratory system that have a centrifugal effect to help remove aerosols Alveoli tiny air sacs Target Organs tissues or organs that are most affected by exposure to a particular substance Surfactant Layer layer of liquids in the digestive tract and elsewhere eg the cardiovascular system that modify or reduce the surface tension within the conductorsintestine blood vesselsto allow materialblood food stools and so onto move easily Boiling Point temperature at which the vapour pressure of a liquid equals atmospheric pressure Dermatitis the inflammation of the skin from any cause Biological Agents natural organisms or products of organisms that present a risk to humans Agents any substanceschemical biological or physicalto which a human may be exposed at work or at home Most occupational health and safety legislation now includes specific sections dealing with chemical and biological agents All occupational diseases such as asbestosis silicosis various types of dermatitis respiratory problems and many occupational injuries such as chemical splashes and spills are related to chemical or biological exposureschemical agents is used to describe hazards that are created by any one or any combination of a very large number of chemicals and their physical reactions whereas biological agents include hazards such as mould fungus bacteria and viruses Each may be ambient or acuteChemical Agents y More than 70000 chemicals currently in use in North America y 800 new ones introduced each yeary physicians seeing patients who complain of physiological reactions to lowlevel chemical exposures in the environmentheadaches dry nasal passages nausea thy labeled as multiple chemical sensitivity MCS 20 century disease total allergy syndrome environmental illnessy certain industrial chemicals have been linked to cancer lung disease blood abnormalities birth defects skin problems y vapours entering atmosphere from solvents paint thinners are in the chemicalreaction category vapours from solvents can have a reaction to such things as heat and pressure Airborne particulates dust created by mechanical means like sanding are in the physical reaction categorythese categories account for most of the health hazards found in the industry and at homey such agents may be hazard in themselves but also interact synergistically with other lifestyle or environmental factors synergistic effects occur when the result of 2 factors taken together is greater than the sum of the 2 Eg asbestos worker 4 times more likely to develop lung cancer than nonasbestos worker probability rises to 80 or 90 times more likely if asbestos worker smokes y 80 percent of all occ Illnesses are result of chemical exposureshealth problems created by chemical exposures are more prevalent in workplace than any other location y the hazard associated with a material is defined as the likelihood that it will cause injury in a given environment or situation y potential degree of seriousness of the hazard is determined by its toxicity or explosive properties
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