MOS 3385 Chapter 5.docx

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 3385A/B
Gail Robertson

02/04/2014 Chapter 5: orientation, Training and Development Orientation - Formal process of familiarizing new employees with the organization, their jobs and their work unit and embedding organizational values, beliefs and accepted behaviours Training - The acquisition of skills, behaviours and abilities to perform current work Development - The acquisition of skills, behaviours and abilities to perform future work to to solve an organizational problem The systems model of training: 1. Training Needs Assessment Analyze training needs Identify training objectives and criteria 2. Training Program Design pretest trainees select training methods plan training content 3. Training delivery Schedule training Conduct Training Monitor Training 4. Evaluation of Training Measure training outcomes Compare outcome to objectives and criteria Conducting NeedsAssessment - It can occur at 3 levels: Organizational Level – examining the environment and strategy of the company to see where training emphasis ought to occur The task level – reviewing the activities of the work to determine the competencies needed The person level- reviewing which need training -Aneeds assessment can be done by asking four questions 1. How important is this issue to the success of the organization ? If it is important then proceed to answer ques 2,3 and 4 2. What competencies or knowledge, skills and employees need? 3. What competencies or knowledge, skills and abilities do the employees currently have? 4. What is that gap between the desired (need) and the actual (have) Designing the Training Program Experts believe that training design should focus on at least four related issues: 1. Instructional Objectives describes the desired outcomes of the training: the skills and knowledge the company wants people to have and the behaviours employees should acquire or change 2. Trainee Readiness and Motivation trainee readiness refers to both maturity and experience factors in the trainees background prospective trainees should be screened to determine that they have the right background knowledge and skills necessary to absorb what is presented to them By focusing on the trainees rather than on the trainer or the topic it creates an environment that is conducive to learning Six strategies can be essential : Use positive reinforcement Eliminate threats and punishment Be flexible Have participants set personal goals Design interesting instruction Break down physical and psychological obstacles to learning 3. Principles of Learning - When investing n effective and efficient training programs, it is important that they incorporate the following principles of learning 1. Goal Setting : It is important that the goals and objectives for the training are clear 2. Individual Differences: people learn at different rates and in different ways 3. Active Practice and Repetition: Trainees should be given frequent opportunity to practice their job tasks. 4. Whole versus part learning: jobs can be broken down into parts. Determining the most effective manner for completing each part 5. Feedback and Reinforcement: feedback serves 2 related purposes: 1) knowledge of results and 2) motivation 6. Meaningfulness of presentation: the material to be learned must be presented in a meaningful manner 7. Modelling: we learn by watching 4. Characteristic of trainers the success of training activity will depend largely on the skills and personal characteristics of the trainers Implementing the training Program Training and Development Methods The foll.Are various types of training approaches that can more or less blend informal, formal and social learning: 1. On the Job training method by which employees are given hands on experience with instructions from their supervisor or other trainer three drawbacks include the lack of a well structured training environment poor training skills of managers the absence of well defined job performance criteria 2. Apprenticeship Training system of training in which a worker entering the skilled trades is given thorough instruction and experience both on and off the job in the practical and theoretical aspects of work 3. Co operative Training and Internship programs cooperative training: combines practical on the job experience with formal education Internship programs 4. Classroom Instruction 5. Self Directed Learning 6. Audio Visual 7. Simulation 8. E learning 9. On the Job experiences presents managers with the opportunities to perform under pressure an
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