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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 3385A/B
Gail Robertson

The Line Manager Aka supervisor is the primary individual who determines what tasks and activities need to be performed and in what order to reach the company’s goals or objectives. Most knowledgeable person about the work to be done and the skills necessary to do the work. Will play integral role in developing and writing a job description. Ajob consists of a group of related activities and duties. For some jobs several employees may be requires each of whom will occupy a separate position. Aposition consists of the specific duties and responsibilities performed by only one employee Job analysis the process of obtaining information about jobs or work by determining what the duties, tasks or activities of those jobs are and the necessary skills, knowledge, training and abilities to perform the work successfully. Concerned with the objective and verifiable information about the requirements of a job vs. job design which reflects subjective opinions about ideal requirements of the job Usually trained hr people undertake job analysis, however a line manager who has good analytical abilities and writing skills can also do it. Job data can be collected in a range of ways: interviews, questionnaires, observation of someone doing work an employee log or any combination of these methods Frequently in larger organizations, a uniform approach is used to collect the data, such as asking people to fill out a questionnaire that requests only a list of work activities The process of job analysis: 1. Where you get job info ? Employee, supervisor, online job profiles 2. How you obtain job information? Questionnaires, interviews, diaries etc. 3. What job information is collected ? Tasks, duties, responsibilities, equipment used, skills required 4. Where the information goes? Written job description: job title, summary of job etc. 5. How the information is used? Recruitment, selection, health and safety, compensation Job Description Once all the info on a particular job has been collected, it is organized into a job description – a written document This description includes the types of duties or responsibilities and the skills , knowledge and abilities or competencies needed to successfully perform the work. There is no standard format so varies from organization to organization but the typical headings are : 1. Job title 2. Summary of the job - 2 or 3 sentences describing the overall purpose of the job.Ans the question, why does this job exist? 3. Duties and responsibilities - individual statements usually listed in order of importance, of the key duties and responsibilities, you would expect to see between 10 and 15 statements 4. Job specification - 2 or 3 sentences describing knowledge, skills and abilities 5. Performance standards - a prioritized list outlining several expected results of the job 6. Date - a time reference Problems with job descriptions 1. If they are poorly written, using vague rather than specific terms, they provide little guidance to the job holder 2. They are sometimes not updated as job duties or specifications change 3. They may violate the law by containing specifications not related to job success ex. Must be single between age 25-35 4. They can limit the scope of the activities of the jobholder 5. They do not contain standards of performance which are essential for selecting, training, evaluating and rewarding jobholders 6. They can be basis for conflict, including union grievances, when expected behaviours are not included Standards of Performance Least likely to be included in a job description however it often provides the most valuable data for both the manager and employee It sets out the expected results of the job- what you are expected to accomplish, as well as how well and how fast. Job analysis in a changing environment For organizations that operate in a fast moving environment, several novel approaches to job analysis may accommodate needed change. 1. Managers might adopt a future oriented or strategic oriented approach to job analysis where managers have a clear view of how jobs should be restructured to meet future organizational requirements. 2. Organizations might adopt a competency based approach to job analysis in which emphasis is placed on characteristics or behaviours of successful performers rather than on standard job duties and so on. 3. Amore practical method might be to have a “living job description’a description that is updated as the job changes Determining the work to be done involves an approach that links the organizations future goals with work information gathered from the people who actually do the work Uses of information from Job analysis 1.Recruitment - Job specifications establish qualifications required and attracts qualified applicants 2. Selection - Process of choosing the individual who has the relevant qualifications and who can best perform the job. Therefore a manager will use the information on the job description as a basis to compare the skills and abilities of each applicant. 3. Legal Issues - due to various employment laws, employers must be able to show that the job specifications used in selecting employees for a particular job relate specifically to the duties of that job. 4. Training and development -Any discrepancies between the knowledge, skills and abilities demonstrated by a jobholder and the requirements contained in the descripti
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