Chapter 7 notes

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 4410A/B
Raymond Leduc

Chapter 7Implementing Strategies mgmt and operations issuesStrategy formulation focuses on the effectiveness while implementation focuses on efficiencyStrategic mgmt often referred to as resource allocation processIn all but the smallest firms transition from strategy formulation to implementation requires a shift in responsibility from strategists to divisional and functional managers o Managersemployees are motivated more by perceived selfinterests than by organizational interests unless the two are the same o Essential for divisionalfunctional managers to be involved as much as possibly in strategy formulation their role should build upon prior involvement in the formulation processFirms should develop a competitor focus at all hierarchical levels by distributing competitive intelligence so that every employees performance becomes a personal challengeEstablishing annual objectives is a decentralized activity that involves all managers of an organizationparticipation is key to acceptancecommitment o Annual objectives are essential for strategy implementation becauseRepresent the basis for allocating resourcesPrimary way for evaluating managersMajor instrument for monitoring progress toward achieving longterm objectivesEstablish organizational divisional and departmental prioritiesObjectives should be consistent across hierarchical levels and form a network of supportive aimshorizontal consistency is JUST AS IMPORTANT as vertical consistency of objectivesCharacteristics of annual objectives should always state quantity quality cost time and be verifiable o Measurable o Consistent o Reasonable o Challenging o Clear o Communicated throughout o Characterized by time dimension o Accompanied by rewards and sanctionsPolicyspecific guidelinesmethodsproceduresrulesforms and administrative practices established to supportencourage work toward stated goals o They clarify what can and cannot be done in pursuit of firm objectives o Provides basis for mgmt control allows coordination across units and reduces the amount of time managers spend making decisions o Promote delegation of decision making to appropriate mgmt levels o Should be stated in writing o Solves recurring problems and guides strategy implementationResource allocationcentral mgmt activity that allows for strategy execution in firms that do not use strategicmgmt resource allocation is usually based on politicalpersonal factors o Enables resources to be allocated according to annual objectives o 4 types of resources used to achieve objectives financial physical human and technological o Any real value of a resource allocation lies in the resulting accomplishment of a firms objectivesConflictdisagreement between two or more parties on one or more issues can stem from interdependency of objectives and competition of limited resources o Establishing objectives can lead to conflict because managers must make tradeoffso Conflict is not always bad lack of conflict can signal indifferenceapathy o Approaches to handling conflictAvoidanceactions like ignoring the problem in hopes the conflict will solve itself or physically separating the conflicting groupsDefusionincludes playing down differences between conflicting parties while accentuating similaritiescommon interests compromising so that there is neither a clear winnerlower resorting to majority rule appealing to a higher authority or redesigning present positionsConfrontationexchanging members of conflicting parties so that each can gain an appreciation of the others POV or holding a meeting at which conflicting parties present their views and work through their differencesChanges in strategy require changes in the way a firm is structured because o Structure largely dictates how objectives and policies will be established o Structure dictates how resources will be allocated
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