Chapter 4 notes

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 4464A/B
Muhammad Shuja

Chapter 4Security Part II Auditing Database SystemsData mgmt approaches i Flat file modelflat files are data files that contain records with no structured relationships to other files usually associated with legacy systems a Promotes a singleuser approach because users own their data files rather than share them with other users files are structured formatted and arranged to suit needs of the owner b This type of mgmt creates data redundancy which causes the following problems i Data storagecosts for multiple collection and storage of the same data causes inefficiency ii Data updating iii Currency of information if update information is not properly disseminated the change will not be reflected in some users data and result in decisions based on outdated data iv Taskdata dependencyuser is unable to obtain additional information as hisher needs changetheir task is limited by the data that he controlsii Database modelaccess to the data resource is controlled by a database mgmt system DBMS which is a software system that is programmed to know which data elements each user is authorized to access a Data is centralized and shared by users b Data element is only stored once so this eliminates data redundancy and reduction in data collectionstorage costs it also saves timecost since data only needs to be updated onceand a single change is automatically made available to all usersThe DBMS provides a controlled environment to assist or prevent access to the database and manage the data resource Elements of a DBMS o Program developmentprogrammers and end users can use this to cr
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