MOS Textbook Notes
Chapter 3 Consumer Behaviour
Consumer Purchase Decision Process
Consumer behaviour are the actions a person takes when purchasing and using
products and services
The stages that a buyer passes through when making choices about which
products and services to buy is the purchase decision process
1. Problem Recognition: Perceiving a Need
The initial step in the purchase decision
Occurs when a person realizes that the difference between what he or she has and
what he or she would like to have is big enough to actually do something about it
2. Information Search: Seeking Value
Consumers begin to search for information about what product or service might
satisfy the newly discovered need
o Internal Search Scan their memory for knowledge of or previously
experienced products or brands
o External Search this is needed when one does not have much past
experience of knowledge, the risk of making a bad decision is high, and
the cost of gathering information is low
Sources: personal sources, public sources, or marketer-dominated
3. Alternative Evaluation: Assessing Value
The factors consumers consider are a consumer’s evaluative criteria, which
represent both the objective attributes of a brand and the subjective ones you use
to compare different products and brands
Evoked set is the group of brands that a consumer would consider acceptable
from among all the brands in the product class of which he or she is aware
4. Purchase Decision: Buying Value
Three choices left: the chosen brand, from whom to buy, and when to buy
Use of the internet to gather information, evaluate alternatives, and make buying
decisions adds a technological dimension to the consumer purchase decision
5. Post-purchase Behaviour: Value in Consumption or Use
After buying a product, the consumer compares it with his or her expectations and
is either satisfied or dissatisfied
o Satisfied buyers tell three other people about their experience
Repeat seller
o Dissatisfied buyers complain to nine people
Cognitive dissonance is the feeling of post-purchase psychological tension or
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Involvement and Problem-Solving Variations
Sometimes consumers don’t engage in the 5 step process, instead they skip one or
more steps depending on the level of involvement
o The level of involvement that a consumer has in a particular purchase
depends on the personal, social, and economic consequences of that
purchase to the consumer
o High involvement purchase occasions typically have at least one of three
The item is expensive
It could have serious personal consequences
It could reflect on one’s social image
Routine Problem Solving
o Table salt and milk
o Spend little effort seeking external sources and evaluating alternatives
Limited Problem Solving
o Seek some information or rely on a friend to help them evaluate
o Several brands might be evaluated
o Little time or effort to spend researching options
Extended Problem Solving
o Each of the 5 stages of the consumer purchase decision process is used in
the purchase
Situational Influences
There are 5 situational influences that have an impact on your purchase decision process:
The Purchase Task
o The reason for engaging in the decision in the first place
o Information searching may differ depending on whether the purchase is a
Social Surroundings
o Include other people present when a purchase decision is made
Physical Surrounding
o Décor, music, and crowding in retail store
Temporal Effects
o The time of day or the amount of time available
Antecedent States
o Include the consumer’s mood or the amount of cash on hand
Psychological Influences on Consumer Behaviour
Psychology helps marketers understand why and how consumers behave as they do.
Motivation and Personality
o Motivation is the energizing force that stimulates behaviour to satisfy a
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