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Chapter 13

Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B Chapter 13: MOS 2181 CHAPTER 13


Department
Management and Organizational Studies
Course Code
MOS 2181A/B
Professor
Sarah Ross
Chapter
13

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CHAPTER 13: LEADERSHIP STYLES AND BEHAVIOURS
LEADERSHIP STYLES AND BEHAVIOURS
Leadership: the use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal
achievement
Leader effectiveness:
-Unit focused approach- ask all members to fill out survey items, then average the responses
across the group to measure leader effectiveness
-Dyad focused approach-members fill out survey items in reference to their particular
relationship with the leader. Responses aren’t averaged, differences across people indicate
differentiation into ingroups and outgroups
-Leader member-exchange theory: a theory describing how leader-member relationships
develop over time on a dyadic (grp of 2) basis
-Initial phase- role taking: the phase in a leader-follower relationship when a leader provides an
employee with job expectations and the follower tries to meet those expectations
-Later phase- role making: the phase in a leader-follower relationship when a follower voices
his or her own expectations for the relationship, resulting in a free flowing exchange of
opportunities and resources for activities and effort
-people who are similar to leader will be in ingroup (greater impact than race, gender, age)
-high quality exchange= ingroup (higher levels of communication, trust, respect, and
obligation)… outgroup vise versa
-higher quality relationships have higher levels of job performance and members exhibit more
OCBs
-LMX relationships are more effective in western vs. Asian cultures
-employees are less likely to leave with a high LMX relationship, but more likely to leave
following leadership succession
WHY ARE SOME LEADERS MORE EFFECTIVE THAN OTHERS?

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leader effectiveness: degree to which the leader’s actions result in the achievement of the units
goals, the continued commitment of the units employees and the development of mutual trust,
respect, and obligation in leader-member dyads
leader emergence: the process of becoming a leader in the first place
-early research on leaders focused on physical features, later research focused on personality
and ability
-search for traits that make a great leader are consistent with “leaders are born not made
-after century of research ppl recognize theres no generalizable profile of effective leader traits
-traits are predictor of leader emergence
-many trait-leadership correlations are weak-especially when leader effectiveness serves as the
outcome
-the focus on leader traits has less relevance than leader actions
LEADER DECISION MAKING STYLES
-Does the leader decide for himself/herself or do they involve others in the process?
Autocratic style: leader makes decision without asking for opinions or suggestions of the
employees in the work unit
Consultative style: leader presents the problem to employees asking for their opionions and
suggestions before making final decision
Facilitative style: leader presents problem to a group of employees and seeks consensus on a
solution, making sure his/her own opinion receives no more weight than anyone else’s
Delegative style: leader gives the employee responsibility for making decisions within some set
of specified boundary conditions
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When the styles are the most effective:
-most impt= quality of resulting decision
-employees feel more job satisfaction when they’re included but it takes up time
time driven model of leadership: leadership model which shifts the focus away from autocratic,
consultative, facilitative, and delegative leaders to autocratic, consultative, facilitative, and
delegative situations. Several factors combine to make some decision making styles more
effective in a given situation and others less.
1. Decision significance
2. Importance of commitment
3. Leader expertise
4. Likelihood of commitment
5. Shared objectives
6. Employee expertise
7. Teamwork skills
-autocratic: decision is unimportant, or when leaders expertise is high and the leader is trusted
-delegative: employees have strong teamwork skills, and arent likely to commit blindly
-consultative and facilitative require consideration of all 7 factors
-Using model to make decisions 68% successful, not using 22% successful
-managers tend to choose recommended style 40% of the time
-managers overuse consultative and underuse autocratic and facilitative
-care.com type 1 type 2 type 3… auto, consult, facilitate (lets her staff know what types of
decisions will be made before meetings)
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