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Chapter 15

Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Organizational Culture, Organizational Learning, Onboarding


Department
Management and Organizational Studies
Course Code
MOS 2181A/B
Professor
Sarah Ross
Chapter
15

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CHAPTER 15: ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND CHANGE
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
The shared social knowledge within an organization regarding the rules, norms, and values that
shape the attitudes and behaviours of its employees
-the way an org does things
culture:
1. social knowledge among members of the org.
-employees learn the most from other employees (communication or observation)
-shared knowledge- members have consensus of what the culture is
2. tells employees rules, norms, values
ex. how should a person dress, what are appropriate behaviours
3. shapes and reinforces employee attitudes and behaviours by a system of control over
employees
-individual goals and values grow to match those of the org for which you work
WHY DO SOME ORGS HAVE DIFFERENT CULTURES THAN OTHERS?
Culture components:
Observable artifacts
aspects of an orgs culture that employees outsiders can easily see and talk about
-primary means of transmitting culture
symbols: images an org uses, which generally convey messages
ex. Logos, uniforms
physical structures: the organization’s buildings and internal office designs
ex. Open workplace, management working in separate section
language: the jargon, slang and slogans used within an organization
stories: anecdotes, accounts, legends, and myths passed down from cohort to cohort within an
organization
-give people entrepreneurial hope
rituals: daily or weekly planned routines that occur in an organization
ex. Casual fridays

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ceremonies: formal events performed in front of an audience of org members
espoused values
the beliefs, philosophies, and norms that a company explicitly states
ex. Mission statements, verbal statements from managers
-enacted values: people’s behaviours show what they value- employees act in ways to support
espoused values
basic underlying assumptions
the engrained beliefs and philosophies of employees
-deepest and least observable part of a culture
-most long lasting and difficult to change
-Unconscious
ex. Engineers make things that are safe- assumption that things should be safe
GENERAL CULTURE TYPES
solidarity: degree to which members think and act alike
sociability: how friendly employees are to one another
very political: “whats in it for me?”
fragmented culture: employees are distant and disconnected from one another
mercenary culture: employees think alike but are not friendly to one another
networked culture: employees are friendly to one another but everyone thinks differently and
does their own thing
communal culture: employees are friendly to one another and all think alike
-orgs move through the culture types as they grow
-small orgs start out as communal- oriented around founder
-they move towards networked when groups get large

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SPECIFIC CULTURE TYPES
Customer service culture: focused on service quality
-service oriented leadership behavior -> service culture -> service oriented employee
behaviours -> customer satisfaction -> unit sales
ex. Nordstrom
Safety culture: focused on safety of employees
Ex. Syncrude Canada (oil sands in alberta) does intensive safety training
Diversity culture: focused on fostering or taking advantage of a diverse grp of employees
Ex. RBC values visible minorities, they believe bringing the best of everyone contributes to
creation of innovative solutions for clients/communities
Creativity culture: focused on creative atmosphere
Ex. 3M Canada believes it comes from freedom and not control, dyson making engineers
disassemble and reassemble vacuum cleaner on first day of job
CULTURE STRENGTH
The degree to which employees agree abt how things should happen within the org (high
consensus) and behave accordingly (high intensity)-customers, competition, and society affect
Advantages of strong culture
Disadvantages of strong culture
Differentiates the org from others
Makes merging with another org difficult
Allows employees to identify themselves
with the org
Attracts and retains similar kinds of
employees, limiting diversity of thought
Facilitates desired behaviours among
employees
“too much of a good thing” if it creates
extreme behaviours among employees
stability within org
Makes adapting to environment difficult
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