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Chapter 11

Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B Chapter 11: MOS 2181 CHAPTER 11


Department
Management and Organizational Studies
Course Code
MOS 2181A/B
Professor
Sarah Ross
Chapter
11

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CHAPTER 11: TEAM CHARACTERISTICS AND PROCESSES
TEAM CHARACTERISTICS
Team: two or more ppl who work interdependently over some time period to accomplish
common goals related to some task oriented purpose
-teams= special type of grp, grp= 2 or more people… special bc:
-interactions amongst each other are deeper than groups
-interactions occur with a specific task related purpose
-friendship grps frequently engage but teams depend on each other for critical info, materials,
and actions to accomplish goals related to their purpose
-surveys of CAN organizations show half use teamwork to accomplish goals
WHAT CHARACTERISTICS CAN BE USED TO DESCRIBE TEAMS
-task, unit, member qualities
TYPES OF TEAMS
Type of team
Purpose and activities
Life span
Member
involvement
Specific examples
Work team
Produce goods/services
Long
High
Self managed work team
Production team
Maintenance team
Sales team
Management
team
Integrate activities of subunits
across business functions
Long
Moderate
Top management team
Parallel team
Provide reccommendations
and resolve issues
Varies
Low
Quality circle
Advisory council
Committee
Project team
Produce a one time output
(product, service, plan, design)
Varies
Varies
Product design team
Research group
Planning team
Action team
Perform complex tasks that
vary in duration and take place
in highly visible or challenging
circumstances
Varies
Varies
Surgical team
Musical group
Expedition team
Sports team
Work teams: relatively permanent teams in which members work together to produce goods
and/or provide services
-also responsible for quality control and developing ideas along the way
-focus on accomplishment of core operational level production/service tasks
Management teams: relatively permanent team that participates in managerial-level tasks that
affect the entire organization
-focus on managerial level tasks that affect the entire organization
-help organization achieve long term goals

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*members of management teams are usually heads of departments- their commitment might
be offset by responsibilities they have in leading their unit
Parallel teams: teams composed of members from various jobs within the organization that
meet to provide recommendations about important issues
-part time commitment
-quality circles= individuals who perform core production tasks but also meet regularly with
individuals from other work groups to identify production related problems and opportunities
for improvement
-ex. temporary parallel team… forming to deal with issues that arrive periodically (changes to
work procedures, purchases of new equipment, non-routine hiring)
Project teams: teams formed to take on one-time tasks, most of which tend to be complex and
require input from members from different functional areas
-last as long as it takes to finish a project
-Ex. Planning team of engineers and architects, design team for electric toothbrush
Action teams: teams of limited duration that performs complex tasks in contexts that tend to
be highly visible and challenging
-ex. Sport teams, music groups, surgical teams and flight teams (only work together for hours)
-teams can fit into more than one category
ex. Pixar= work team bc the key members of pixar have stuck together for each film, project
team bc members are involved in multiple ongoing projects and each film can be viewed as 1
project
VARIATIONS WITHIN TEAM TYPES
-High levels of self-management- good for teams where team members have high levels of
team relevant knowledge from outside experts and others in their social networks
-low level of self management- good for teams with strict rules regarding goals, procedures,
roles, and managers/leaders make most of the decisions regarding membership
virtual teams: team in which the members are geographically dispersed and interdependent
activity occurs through email, web conferencing, and instant messaging
-800% increase in the number of virtual employees over the last decade or so
-tens of millions operating today
-at IBM at least 40% of teams work virtually
-logitech members pass of the work to members in different countries when the sun goes down
in their country and sun goes up in the other “follow the sun”
TWO MODELS OF TEAM DEVELOPMENT
Tuckman’s five stage model (predictable sequence)
Forming:
Storming:
Norming:
Performing:

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-Little
agreement
-Unclear
purpose
-Need for
guidance
and direction
-Conflict
increasing clarity
of purpose
-Power struggles
-Need for
coaching
-Agreement and
consensus
-Clear roles and
responsibilities
-Need for
facilitation
-Clear vision and
purpose
-Focus on goal
achievement
-Need for
delegation
-doesn’t apply to every team, less applicable when teams have clear expectations of their roles
-ex. Flight team doesn’t have to go through these stages to figure out pilot flies the plane and
flight attendants serve drinks
Less linear fashion:
punctuated equilibrium: a sequence of team development during which not much gets done
until the halfway point of a project after which teams make necessary changes to complete the
project on time
1. Members make assumptions and establish pattern of behavior that lasts for first half of
its life
2. Settles into intertia (tendency to do nothing or remain unchanged)
3. Teams realize they must make changes to complete project (punctuated equilibrium)
true to all teams no matter the length of the project
4. Teams that change their ways do well and teams that don’t “go down with a sinking
ship”
TEAM INTERDEPENDENCE
The degree to which team members interact with and rely on other team members for info,
materials, and resources needed to accomplish work for the team
-way team members are linked to one another
-linkages exist in respect to their goals and rewards
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