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Chapter 7

Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Eval, Motivation, Merit Pay

Management and Organizational Studies
Course Code
MOS 2181A/B
Sarah Ross

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Chapter 7 - Motivation
Motivation: set of energetic forces that determine direction, intensity, +
persistance of emplyye work effor
Internal forces: sense of purpose/confidence
External forces: goals/incentices
Determines what employees do @ given moment
For how hard + for how long
Engagement: Has diff meanings depending on context; most often refered
as motivation but can refer to affective commitment
Expectation Theory: Describes cog process employees go thru to make choices
among diff voluntary responses
Argues that behaviour is directed toward pleasure + away from pain
1. Expectancy: Belief that exerting high level of effor will result in
successful performance on some task
0 → 1, E → P
2. Self-efficacy: Belief that person has capabilities needed to perform
behaviours req on some task
First consider past accomplishments, then vicarious experiences
Also dictated by verbal persuasion + emotional cues
3. Instrumentality: Belief that successful performacne results in some
P→ O
Many don't percieve high levels of I (35% saw performance as key
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4. Valence: Anticipated value of outcome(s) w/ successful performance
Can be +/-/0
Needs: Grouping/clusters of outcomes viewed as having crit
psycho/physio consequences
Maslow’s 5 Level of Needs
Physio needs, Needs to be safe, Love + belonging,
Desire for stable +pos eval
Alderfer 3 Basic Needs
For existence (physio + safety), for relatedness (love
+ belonging), for growth (esteem + self-actualization)
People are drawn to competence, autonomy +
5. Extrinsic/Intrinsic Motivation (= “total motivation”)
Extrinsic: desire to put eforrt due to some contingency that depends
on TP
Intrinsic: Desrive to put effort due to sense that TP serves as own
Attractiveness of work varies across cultures + research
suggests that people underestimate how powerful a
motivator pay is to them
Meaning of Money: idea that money can have
symbolic value
Men likely to view money as repping
Achievement, Respect, Freedom
Higher paid view as achievement related terms
Younger, less likely to view in pos light
Motivational Force = E → P x ∑[(P → O) x V]
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