Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B Chapter Notes -Convergent Validity, Observational Techniques, Discriminant Validity

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Hypothesis: A formal statement of the expected relationship between two variables.
Variables: Measures that can take on two or more values.
Types of Variables
Independent variable: The variable that predicts or is the cause of variation in a
dependent variable.
Dependent variable: The variable that is expected to vary as a result of changes to te
independent variable.
Moderating variable: A variable that affects the nature of the relationship between an
independent variable and a dependent variable such that the relationship depends on the
level of the moderating variable.
Mediating variable: A variable that intervenes or explains the relationship between an
independent and a dependent variable.
Measurement of Variables
Reliability: An index of the consistency of a research subject’s response.
Validity: An index of the extent to which a measure truly reflects what it is supposed to
Convergent validity: When there is a strong relationship between different measures of
the same variable.
Discriminant validity: When there is a weak relationship between measures of different
Three basic kinds of research techniques:
1. Observation
2. Correlation
3. Experimentation
Observational Techniques
Observational research: Research that examines the natural activities of people in an
organizational setting by listening to what they say and watching what they do.
Participant observation: Observational research in which the researcher becomes a
functioning member of the organizational unit being studied.
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