Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Organizational Behavior, Reinforcement, Negative Affectivity
DepartmentManagement and Organizational Studies
Course CodeMOS 2181A/B
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CHAPTER 2 – PERSONALITY AND LEARNING
Personality: The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the
way an individual interacts with his or her environment.
Five-Factor Model of Personality (FFM)
1. Extraversion: Extent to which someone is outgoing vs. shy.
2. Emotional stability/Neuroticism: Degree to which someone had appropriate emotional
3. Agreeableness: Extent to which someone is friendly and approachable.
4. Conscientiousness: Degree to which someone is responsible and achievement
5. Openness to experience: Extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to
•All factors above are relatively independent of each other and hold up cross-
Locus of control: A set of beliefs about whether one’s behavior is controlled mainly by
internal or external forces.
Behavioral plasticity theory: People with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to
external and social influences than those who have high-self esteem.
Five personality variable important for OB:
1. Positive and negative affectivity (PA and NA)
•May have a genetic basis
•Positive affectivity: Propensity to view the world, including oneself and
other people, in a positive light.
•Negative affectivity: Propensity to view the world, including oneself and
other people, in a negative light.
•Can influence people’s job attitudes and behavior.
•People higher on PA report higher job satisfaction, are more creative at
work, and are less stressed.
2. Proactive personality
•Taking initiative to improve current circumstances or creating new ones.
3. General self-efficacy (GSE)
•A general trait that refers to an individual’s belief in his or her ability to
perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations.
•A motivational trait, not an affective trait.
•If you have experienced many successes, you probably have a higher
4. Core self-evaluations
•A broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that
reflect the evaluations people hold about themselves and their self-worth.
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