Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Organizational Behavior, Reinforcement, Negative Affectivity

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Personality: the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment. Locus of control: a set of beliefs about whether one"s behavior is controlled mainly by internal or external forces. Behavioral plasticity theory: people with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those who have high-self esteem. If you have experienced many successes, you probably have a higher. Learning: a relatively permanent change in behavior potential that occurs due to practice or experience. Extinction: the gradual dissipation of behavior following the termination of reinforcement. Punishment: the application of an aversive stimulus following some behavior designed to decrease the probability of that behavior. Provide an acceptable alternative for the punished response. How to increase the effectiveness of punishment: make sure the chosen punishment is truly aversive, punish immediately, do not reward unwanted behaviors before or after punishment, do not inadvertently punish desirable behavior.