Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Social Identity Theory, Central Tendency, Stereotype
DepartmentManagement and Organizational Studies
Course CodeMOS 2181A/B
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CHAPTER 3 – PERCEPTION, ATTRIBUTION, AND JUDGEMENT OF
Perception: The process of interpreting the messages of our sense to provides order and
meaning to the environment.
Perception has three components:
1. The perceiver
oInfluenced by experience
oPerceptual defense: The tendency for the perceptual system to defend
the perceiver against unpleasant emotions, i.e. see what we want to
2. The target
3. The situation
oPerception of the target changes with the situation.
Social Identity Theory
People form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships n
•Our personal identity is based on our unique personal characteristics, like interest,
•Our social identity is based on our perception that we belong to various social groups,
like gender, nationality, religion, etc.
Perceptual selectivity, constancy, and consistency.
•Primary and recency effects
oPrimary effect: The tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues or
oRecency effect: The tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or
•Reliance on central traits
oCentral traits: Personal characteristics of a target person that are part
of a particular interest to a perceiver.
•Implicit Personality Theories
oPersonal theories that people have about which personality
characteristics go together.
oThe tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and
feelings to others.
oThe tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category
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