The influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an organizational context innovation, satisfaction, and commitment of the workforce. Effective leadership achieves organizational goals by enhancing productivity, Strategic leadership: involves the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically, and work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable future for the organization. Traits are personal characteristics of the individual, including physical characteristics, intellectual ability, and personality. Research shows that some traits are associated with leadership intelligence, energy, self-confidence, dominance, motivation to lead, emotional stability, honesty and integrity, and need for achievement. Three of the big five dimensions of personality (agreeableness, extraversion, and openness to experience) are related to leadership behaviours. Research focus: leader categorization theory and racial bias. Leadership categorization theory explains that people are more likely to view somebody as a leader and to evaluate them as a more effective leader when they posses prototypical characteristics of leadership.