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Chapter 9

Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Job Satisfaction, Contingency Theory, Organizational Commitment


Department
Management and Organizational Studies
Course Code
MOS 2181A/B
Professor
Victoria Digby
Chapter
9

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Leadership – Chapter 9
What is Leadership?
The influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of
others in an organizational context
Effective leadership achieves organizational goals by enhancing productivity,
innovation, satisfaction, and commitment of the workforce
Strategic leadership: involves the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain
flexibility, think strategically, and work with others to initiate changes that
will create a viable future for the organization
Are Leaders Born? The Search for Leadership Traits
Research on Leadership Traits
Traits are personal characteristics of the individual, including physical
characteristics, intellectual ability, and personality
Research shows that some traits are associated with leadership –
intelligence, energy, self-confidence, dominance, motivation to lead,
emotional stability, honesty and integrity, and need for achievement
Three of the “Big Five” dimensions of personality (agreeableness,
extraversion, and openness to experience) are related to leadership
behaviours
RESEARCH FOCUS: Leader Categorization Theory and Racial Bias
Leadership categorization theory explains that people are more likely
to view somebody as a leader and to evaluate them as a more
effective leader when they posses prototypical characteristics of
leadership
Being white = prototypical characteristic of the business leader
Limitations of the Trait Approach
Difficult to determine whether the traits make the leader or whether the
opportunity for leadership produces the traits
Few clues as to what “dominant” or “intelligent” people DO to influence
others successfully
Most crucial problem of the trait approach is its failure to take into account
the situation in which leadership occurs
The Behaviour of Leaders
Consideration and Initiating Structure
Consideration = the extent to which a leader is approachable and shows
personal concern and respect for employees
Initiating structure = the degree to which a leader concentrates on group
goal attainment
The Consequences of Consideration and Initiating Structure
Consideration is more strongly related to leader satisfaction/effectiveness
and job satisfaction whereas initiating structure is more strongly related to
leader job performance and group performance
Importance of consideration and initiating structure varies according to the
situation:

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When employee are under a high degree of pressure = initiating
structure increases satisfaction and performance
When the task is intrinsically satisfying = need for high consideration is
reduced
When goals/methods of performing a task are clear = consideration
will promote employee satisfaction
When employees lack knowledge = initiating structure is better
Leader Reward and Punishment Behaviours
Leader reward behaviour: the leader’s use of compliments, tangible
benefits, and deserved special treatment
Leader punishment behaviour: the leader’s use of reprimands or
unfavourable task assignments and the active withholding of rewards
KEY to effective reward and punishment is that it be administered contingent
on employee behaviour and performance – if it is, BOTH rewards and
punishments will be lead to more favourable employee perceptions (e.g.,
trust in supervisor ), attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction, organizational
commitment), behaviours (effort, performance, OCB), and lower role
ambiguity
Situational Theories of Leadership
Fieldler’s Contingency Theory and Cognitive Resource Theory
Association between leadership orientation and group effectiveness is
contingent upon (depends on) the extent to which the situation is
favourable for the exertion of influence
Leadership orientation is measured by having leaders describe their Lead
Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) – a current/past co-worker with whom a leader
has had a difficult time accomplishing a task
Person that describes the LPC favourably (high LPC) = relationship
oriented
Person that describes the LPC unfavourably (low LPC) = task oriented
Although similar to consideration/initiating structure, LPC score is an
attitude, not a behaviour
Situational Favourableness – specifies when a particular LPC orientation
should contribute to group effectiveness. Factors that affect situation
favourableness:
1. Leader-member relations
2. Task structure
3. Position power
Situation is most favourable for leadership when leader-member
relations are good, the task is structured, and the leader has strong
position power
Situation is least favourable when leader-member relations are poor,
the task is unstructured, and the leader has weak position power
Task oriented leaders (low LPC) = most effective when the leadership
situation is very favourable OR very unfavourable
Relationship oriented leaders (high LPC) = most effective in conditions
of medium favourabilty
Cognitive Resource Theory (CRT)
Revised contingency theory
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