Chapter 4 Review.docx
DepartmentManagement and Organizational Studies
Course CodeMOS 2181A/B
Chapter 4 – Values, Attitudes and Work Behaviour
Values are a broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others. Values have to do with what we consider
good and bad. Values are motivational and very general. People tend to hold values structured around such factors
as achievement, power, autonomy, conformity, tradition, and social welfare.
Generation Difference in Values
Four distinctive generations in the workplace today:
Traditionalists (1922-1945): Respectful of authority and a high work ethic.
Boomers (1946-1964): Optimistic workaholics.
Gen X (1965-1980): Cynical, confident, and pragmatic.
Gen Y (1981-2000): Confidant, social, demanding of feedback, and somewhat unfocused.
Most research points to more similarities than differences in values across generations. Some indication that Gen X
and Y are more inclined to value status and rapid career growth than are boomers. Gen Ys especially value
autonomy and Xers, compared to boomers, are less loyal, more wanting of promotion, and more inclined toward
work-life balance. Generational differences in work values or the way values are expressed is important because a
good “fit” between a person’s values and those of the organization (person-organization fit) leads to more positive
work attitudes and behaviours.
Cultural Differences in Values
There are basic differences in work-related values across cultures. A lack of understanding of cross-cultural
differences can cause foreign assignments to terminate early and business negotiations to fail.
Work Centrality- Work is valued differently across cultures. There are cross-national differences in the extent to
which people perceive work as a central life interest. People for whom work was a central life interest work more
hours. Cross-cultural differences in work centrality can lead to adjustment problems for foreign employees and
Geert Hofstede’s Study questioned over 116,000 IBM employees in 40 countries about their work-related values.
He discovered four basic dimensions along which work-related values differed across cultures: Power distance,
Uncertainty avoidance, Masculinity/femininity, and Individualism/collectivism.
Power Distance is the extent to which society members accept an unequal distribution of power. In small power
distance cultures, inequality is minimized, superiors are accessible, and power differences are downplayed. In
large power distance cultures, inequality is accepted as natural, superiors are inaccessible, and power differences
Uncertainty Avoidance is The extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations.
Strong uncertainty avoidance cultures stress rules and regulations, hard work, conformity, and security. Cultures
with weak uncertainty avoidance are less concerned with rules, conformity, and security, and hard work is not
seen as a virtue and risk taking is valued.
Masculine cultures clearly differentiate gender roles, support the dominance of men, and stress economic
performance. Feminine cultures accept fluid gender roles, stress sexual equality, and stress quality of life.
Individualistic societies stress independence, individual initiative, and privacy. Collective cultures favour
interdependence and loyalty to family or clan.
Cultures with a long-term orientation stress persistence, perseverance, thrift, and close attention to status
differences. Cultures with a short-term orientation stress personal steadiness and stability, face-saving, and social
Implications of Cultural Variation
Exporting OB Theories - Organizational behaviour theories, research, and practices from North America might not
translate well to other societies. A good fit between company practices and the host culture is important.
Importing OB Theories - Not all theories and practices that concern organizational behaviour are designed in North
America or even in the West. The most obvious examples are “Japanese management” techniques, such as quality
circles, total quality management, and just-in-time production. Organizations need to tailor management practices
to the home culture’s concerns.
An appreciation of cross-cultural differences in values is essential to understanding the needs and tastes of
customers or clients around the world. Success in translating management practices to other cultures, importing
practices, and appreciating global customers does not happen by accident. Companies need to select, train, and
develop employees to have an appreciation of differences in cultural values and the implications of these
differences for behaviour in organizations.
An attitude is a fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistency to some specific object, situation, person,
or category of people. Attitudes involve evaluations directed toward specific targets. They are more specific than
values. Attitudes often influence our behaviour toward some object, situation, person, or group. Attitudes are a
function of what we think and what we feel. Attitudes are the product of a related belief and value.
Belief + Value = Attitude ->Behaviour
Most attempts at attitude change are initiated by a communicator who tries to use persuasion of some form to
modify the beliefs or values of an audience that supports a currently held attitude. Persuasion that is designed to
modify or emphasize values is usually emotionally oriented. Persuasion that is slanted toward modifying certain
beliefs is usually rationally oriented.
Job Satisfaction is a collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs. Facet satisfaction refers to the
tendency for an employee to be more or less satisfied with various facets of the job: The work itself, Compensation,
Career opportunities, Recognition, and Benefits. Overall satisfaction is a summary indicator of a persons’ attitude
toward his or her job that cuts across the various facets. The most popular measure of job satisfaction is the Job
Descriptive Index(JDI). It is designed around five facets of satisfaction. The Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire(MSQ) is also a carefully constructed measure of job satisfaction. Respondents indicate how happy
they are with various aspects of their job on a scale ranging from “very satisfied” to “very dissatisfied.”
Discrepancy is A theory that job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between the job outcomes wanted and
the outcomes that are perceived to be obtained. There is strong evidence that satisfaction with one’s pay is high
when there is a small gap between the pay received and the perception of how much pay should be received.
Fairness - Issues of fairness affect both what people want from their jobs and how they react to the inevitable
discrepancies in organizational life. There are three basic kinds of fairness:
Distributive Fairness is Fairness that occurs when people receive what they think they deserve from their
jobs. It involves the ultimate distribution of work rewards and resources. Equity theory provides a way of
understanding how people determine what is fair. A theory that job satisfaction stems from a comparison of the
inputs one invests in a job and the outcomes one receives in comparison to the inputs and outcomes of another
person or group.
My outcomes = Other’s outcomes
My inputs Other’s inputs
Procedural Fairness is Fairness that occurs when the process used to determine work outcomes is seen as
reasonable. It is concerned with how outcomes are decided and allocated. It is particularly relevant to outcomes
such as performance evaluations, pay raises, promotions, layoffs, and work assignments. In allocating outcomes,
the following factors contribute to perceptions of procedural fairness. The allocator:
–Follows consistent procedures over time and across people.
–Uses accurate information and appears unbiased.
–Allows two-way communication during the allocation process.
–Welcomes appeals of the procedure or allocation.
Dissatisfaction will be maximized when people believe that they would have obtained better outcomes if the
decision maker had used other procedures that should have been implemented.
Interactional Fairness is Fairness that occurs when people feel that they have received respectful and informative
communication about an outcome. Interactional fairness is important because it is possible for absolutely fair
outcomes or procedures to be perceived as unfair when they are inadequately or uncaringly explained.
Disposition - The dispositional view of job satisfaction is based on the idea that some people are predisposed by
virtue of their personalities to be more or less satisfied despite changes in discrepancy or fairness. These findings
suggest that some personality characteristics originating in genetics or early learning contribute to adult job
satisfaction. People who are extraverted and conscientious tend to be more satisfied with their jobs. Those high in
neuroticism are less satisfied. People who are high in self-esteem and internal locus of control are more satisfied.
Mood and Emotion - Affect is a broad label for feelings that includes emotions and moods. Emotions are intense,
often short-lived feelings caused by a particular event such as a bad performance appraisal. Moods are less intense,
longer-lived, and more diffuse feelings. Jobs consist of a series of events and happenings that have the potential to
provoke emotions or to influence moods, depending on how we appraise these events and happenings. Mood and
emotion can also influence job satisfaction through emotional contagion. Emotional contagion is the tendency for
moods and emotions to spread between people or throughout a group. People’s moods and emotions tend to
converge with interaction. Mood and emotion can also influence job satisfaction through the need for emotional
regulation. Emotional regulation is the requirement for people to conform to certain “display rules” in their job
behaviour in spite of their true mood or emotions. This is often referred to as “emotional labour.” In some jobs,
employees must exaggerate positive emotions while in others they must suppress negative emotions. All jobs have
their implicit display rules, however, service roles are especially laden with them.
Consequences of Emotional Regulation - The frequent need to suppress negative emotions can lower job satisfaction
and increase stress. Some research suggests that the need to express positive emotions improves job satisfaction.
The facets that seem to contribute the most to feelings of job satisfaction for most North American workers
–Mentally challenging work - Refers to work that tests employees’ skills and abilities, allows them to set their own
working pace, and provides them with clear performance feedback.
–Adequate compensation - Most employees expect to receive an adequate amount of compensation.
–Career opportunities - The availability of career opportunities and opportunities for promotion are important
contributors to job satisfaction.
–People (friendly or helpful colleagues) - Friendly, considerate, good-natured superiors and co-workers contribute
to job satisfaction. The ability of others to help us do our work and attain outcomes that we value also contributes
to job satisfaction.
Consequences of Job Satisfaction
Absence from Work
Absenteeism is an expensive behaviour. Less satisfied employees are more likely to be absent. Satisfaction with the
content of the work is the best predictor of absenteeism. Several factors constrain the ability of many people to
convert their like or dislike of work into corresponding attendance patterns:
–Some absence is unavoidable.
–Opportunities for off-the-job satisfaction on a missed day vary.
–Some organizations have attendance control policies.
–It might be unclear to employees how much absenteeism is reasonable or sensible.
The connection between job satisfaction and good attendance probably stems in part from the tendency for job
satisfaction to facilitate mental health and satisfaction with life in general.
Turnover refers to resignation from an organization and it can be very expensive. Research indicates a moderately
strong connection between job satisfaction and turnover. Less-satisfied workers are more likely to quit. The model
shows that job satisfaction as well as commitment to the organization and various “shocks” can contribute to
intentions to leave. Research shows that such intentions are very good predictors of turnover. Certain “shocks”
might stimulate turnover despite satisfaction with the current job. An employees’ dissatisfaction with his or her job
might be offset by a strong commitment to the overall values and mission of the organization. An employee might