Chapter 5 – Theories of Work Motivation
Motivation is the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal. The basic characteristics of motivation:
Effort, Persistence, Direction, and Goals. Intrinsic Motivation is motivation that stems from the direct relationship
between the worker and the task and is usually self-applied. Extrinsic Motivation is motivation that stems from the
work environment external to the task and is usually applied by others. Some motivators have both extrinsic and
Self-Determination Theory is A theory of motivation that considers whether people’s motivation is autonomous or
controlled. Autonomous motivation occurs when people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors. Controlled
motivation occurs when people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward.
Motivation and Performance
Performance refers to the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the
organization. While motivation contributes to performance, the relationship is not one-to-one because a number of
other factors also influence performance.
General Cognitive Ability is A person’s basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources. General
cognitive ability predicts learning, training success, and job performance in all kinds of jobs and occupations.
Emotional Intelligence (EI) is The ability to understand and manage one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions.
Peter Salovey and John Mayer developed an EI model that consists of four interrelated sets of skills or branches.
The four skills represent sequential steps that form a hierarchy.
-Perceiving Emotions Accurately in Oneself and Others: The ability to perceive emotions and to accurately identify
one’s own emotions and the emotions of others.
-Using Emotions to Facilitate Thinking: The ability to use and assimilate emotions and emotional experiences to
guide and facilitate one’s thinking and reasoning.
-Understanding Emotions, Emotional Language, and the Signals Conveyed by Emotions: Involves being able to
understand emotional information, the determinants and consequences of emotions, and how emotions
evolve and change over time.
-Managing Emotions to Attain Specific Goals: The ability to manage one’s own and others’ feeling and
emotions as well as emotional relationships.
EI predicts performance in a number of areas including job performance and academic performance. EI is most
strongly related to job performance in jobs that require high levels of emotional labour. EI has been found to be
most important for the job performance of employees with lower levels of cognitive ability.
The Motivation-Performance Relationship: It is possible for performance to be low even when a person is
highly motivated. We cannot consider motivation in isolation. High motivation will not result in high performance
if employees are deficient in important skills and abilities.