The resolution of disputes the court & alternatives to litigation: canadian courts are open to the public. In ontario, judges must retire at the age of 65 estates: sentencing circles: aren"t courts. Involve all interested persons meeting in a circle to discuss the offence, including sentencing options. A quorum consists of 5 judges, but most appeals are heard by a: substantive law law that summarizes rights and obligations of the panel of 7 or 9 judges. Matter can be kept private, avoid negative publicity, disclosure of sensitive information. Resolve conflicts between international businesses: disadvantages of adr vs. Adr agreements not enforceable: negotiation should be tired first. Relationship may be enhanced: mediation, arbitration. Neutral 3rd party facilitates communication mediator. Mediator doesn"t make decision, he/she finds common ground. Disadvantages: mediator have little power; mediation may exacerbate the weaker party; doesn"t work well when confidential information is involved. Arbitrators are chosen by parties may be experts in the field.