Chapter 9 Textbook Summary
Products, Services, and Brands
Product: anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition,
use, or consumption that might satisfy a want or need
o Also include services, events, persons, places, organizations, ideas, or
mixes of these
Services: form of product that consists of activities, benefits, or satisfactions
offered for sale that are essentially intangible and do not result in the
ownership of anything
Product is a key element in the overall market offering
Marketing-mix planning begins with building an offering that brings value to
target customers
o This offering becomes the basis upon which the company builds
profitable customer relationships
o The offer may consist of a pure tangible good or a pure service
o They are creating and managing customer experiences with their
brands or company
Three levels of product and services
o Core customer value: what is the buyer really buying?
o Actual product: features, design, quality level, brand name, packaging
o Augmented product: additional consumer services and benefits
Marketers must first identify the core customer value that consumers seek
from the product; they must design the actual product and find ways to
augment it to create the value and the most satisfying customer experience
Product and service classifications
o Consumer Products: products and services bought by final
consumers for personal consumption
Convenience products: consumer products and services that
customers usually buy frequently, immediately, and with a
minimum of comparison and buying effort
Shopping products: less frequently purchased consumer
products and services that consumers compare carefully on
suitability, quality, price, and style (furniture)
Specialty products: consumer products and services with
unique characteristics or brand identification for which a
significant group of buyers is wiling to make a special purchase
effort (specific car brands)
Unsought products: consumer products that the consumer
either does not know about or knows about but does not
normally think of buying
o Business Products: those purchased for further processing or for use
in conducting a business
Materials and parts (raw materials, manufactured materials
and parts)
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Capital items business products that aid in the buyer’s
production or operations, including installations and accessory
equipment
Supplies an services (operating supplies, repair and
maintenance items)
Organization Marketing: consists of activities undertaken to create, maintain,
or change the attitudes and behaviour of target consumers toward an
organization
o Business firms sponsor public relations or corporate image
advertising campaigns to market themselves and polish their image
Person marketing: consists of activities undertaken to create, maintain, or
change attitudes or behaviour toward particular people
o Politicians, entertainers, sports figures
o The skillful use of marketing can turn a person’s name into a
powerhouse brand
Place marketing: involves activities undertaken to create, maintain, or
change attitudes or behaviour toward particular places
o Cities, provinces, regions, nations compete to attract tourists
Ideas can be marketed
Social Marketing: the use of commercial marketing concepts and tools in
programs designed to influence individuals’ behaviour to improve their well-
being and that of society
Marketers make product and service decisions at three levels
o Individual product decisions
o Product line decisions
o Product mix decisions
Individual product decisions
o Product and Service Attributes
Product Quality: the characteristics of a product or service
that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied customer
needs
“Freedom from defects”
TQM is an approach in which all the company's people
are involved in constantly improving the quality of
products, services and business processes
“Return on quality” approach
Two dimensions to product quality: level and
consistency
Company must first choose a quality level that will
support the products positioning. Here, product quality
means performance quality the ability of a product to
perform its functions
High quality means high levels of quality consistency
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o Conformance quality freedom from defects and
consistency in delivering a targeted level of
performance
Product Features
Features are a competitive tool for differentiating the
company's product from competitors’ products
The company should periodically survey buyers
The company can assess each feature’s value to
customers versus its cost to the company
Product style and design
Design is a larger concept than design
Style simply describes the appearance of a product
Design is more than skin deep it goes to the very heart
of a product. Good design contributes to a products
usefulness as well as its looks
o Branding
Brand: a name, term, sign, symbol, design, or a combination of
these, that identifies the maker or seller of a product or service
Hardly anything goes unbranded
Brand names help consumers identify products that might
benefit them
The brand name becomes the basis on which a whole story can
be built about a products special qualities
Provides legal protection
o Packaging
Packaging: involves designing and producing the container or
wrapper for a product
Attracting attention, to describing a product, to making a sale
Consumer Reports even has an award for the most difficult to
open packages, fittingly named the “Oyster Awards”
o Labeling
Labels range from simple tags attached to products to complex
graphics that are part of the package
Label identifies the product or brand
May also describe several things about a product or promote
the brand
Have the potential to mislead customers, fail to describe
important ingredients, and fail to include safety warnings
o Product Support Services
Customer service is another element of the product strategy
The first step is to survey customers periodically to assess the
value of current services and to obtain ideas for new ones
Then take steps to fix problems and add new services that will
both delight customers and yield profits to the company
Product Line Decision
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Document Summary

Product: anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use, or consumption that might satisfy a want or need: also include services, events, persons, places, organizations, ideas, or mixes of these. Services: form of product that consists of activities, benefits, or satisfactions offered for sale that are essentially intangible and do not result in the ownership of anything. Product is a key element in the overall market offering. Three levels of product and services: core customer value: what is the buyer really buying, actual product: features, design, quality level, brand name, packaging, augmented product: additional consumer services and benefits. Marketers must first identify the core customer value that consumers seek from the product; they must design the actual product and find ways to augment it to create the value and the most satisfying customer experience. Product and service classifications: consumer products: products and services bought by final consumers for personal consumption.

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