Management and Organizational Studies 3343A/B Chapter 10: T&D Chapter 10 Textbook Notes

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T&D Chapter 10 Textbook Notes
Transfer of Training
Theory multiple intelligence- Gardner
8 he identified
Verbal-linguistic; logical-mathematical; interpersonal; intrapersonal; musical-rhythmic;
bodily-kinesthetic; visual-spatial; naturalistic; existentialist
Just Google this theory in case it's on the exam
Everyone possesses all 8
Most people can develop each intelligence to an adequate lvl of competency
Intelligences work together in complex ways - defined by individual, social, and cultural
influences
No std set of attributes required to be considered intelligent in a specific area
What is transfer of training?
Organizations are increasingly concerned about the value added of human program.
When it comes to training, they are concerned about the transfer of training.
Transfer of training: refers to the generalization of the knowledge and skills acquired in a training
program on the job and the maintenance of acquired knowledge and skills over time
There are two conditions of transfer of training:
1. Generalization: refers to the use or application off learned material to the job
2. Maintenance: refers to the use or application of learned material on the job over a period
of time.
Transfer of training occurs when learned material is generalized to the context and maintenance
over a period of time on the job.
The extent to which a training program transfers to the job can be described as positive, zero, or
negative transfer.
When transfer is positive, trainees effectively apply new knowledge, skills, and attitudes
acquired in training on the job.
If transfer is zero, trainees are not using new knowledge and skills on the job.
When transfer is negative, training has had a negative effect and trainees are performing
worse as a result of a training program.
Transfer of training can also be considered in terms of the type of situations in which trainees can
apply what was learned in training on the job (extent):
For example, near transfer refers to the extent to which trainees can apply what was
learned in training to situations that are very similar to those in which they were trained.
On the other hand, far transfer refers to the extent to which trainees can apply what was
learned in training to novel or different situations from those in which they were trained.
Final distinction is horizontal and vertical transfer. Horizontal transfer: involves the transfer of
knowledge and skills across different settings or context at the same level (ie. Of the
organization). Vertical transfer: refers to transfer from the individual or trainee level upward to
the organization level.
I other ords, it is oered ith the etet to hih hages i traiee’s ehaiour ad
performance transfer to organizational level outcomes.
This is an important distinction because transfer to the job (eg: horizontal transfer) might not lead
to changes in organizational outcomes (eg: vertical transfer).
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The transfer problem
60-90% of what is learned n training is not applied on the job
Canadian study found trainees apply:
54% immediately after
15% six months
11% after 1 year
Barriers to the transfer of training (table 10.1):
Immediate manager does not support training
The culture in the work group does not support the training
No opportunity exists to use the skills
No time is provided to use the skills
Skills could not be applied to the job
The systems and processes did not support the skills
Skills no longer apply because of changed job responsibilities
Skills are not appropriate in our work unit
Did not see a need to apply what was learned
Old habits could not be changed
Reard sstes do’t support e skills
Transfer of training process:
One way to understand the transfer of training is to identify the factors that contribute to positive
transfer of training.
A good plae to start is Baldi ad Ford’s Model of the trasfer of traiig proess
Training inputs include trainee characteristics, training design, and the work environment.
The conditions of transfer are transfer generalization and maintenance.
According to the model, trainee characteristics, training design, and the work environment have a
direct effect on learning and retention.
Training characteristics, the work environment, and learning and retention have a direct effect on
transfer generalization and maintenance.
Learning and retention are a necessary but not sufficient condition for transfer.
This is because trainee characteristics and the work environment also play a critical role in
whether or not trainees apply to what they learn in training on the job.
Trainee characteristics:
Trainee characteristics are important for the transfer of training.
In fact, the same trainee characteristics that influence learning and retention are also important
for transfer.
Trainee differences in these characteristics can help us understand why some trainees are more
likely to transfer than others.
Trainees with higher cognitive ability, training motivation, and self-efficacy are more likely to learn
and transfer. Among the trainee characteristics, cognitive ability has been found to be most
strongly related to transfer.
Internal locus of control & high need for achievement
High job involvement, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment
Another trainee characteristics that is particularly relevant to transfer is motivation to transfer.
Motivation to transfer: is a trainee intended efforts to utilize skills and knowledge learned in
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training on the job. Motivation to transfer has been found to be significant predictor of positive
transfer.
Training Design:
Active practice & conditions of practice
A number of design elements that are known are learning principles that can be incorporated into
a training program to improve the transfer of training
Identical elements:
Identical elements: involve providing trainees with training experiences and conditions that
closely resemble those in the actual work environment.
Idetial eleets theor states that trasfer ad hae ee sho to irease traiee’s
retention of motor and verbal behaviour.
Are especially important for near transfer and have been shown to increase trainees
retention of motor and verbal behaviours
Physical fidelity involves making the condition of training programs such as the surrounding,
tasks, and equipment similar to the work environment.
Psychological fidelity has to do with the extent that trainees attach similar meanings to the
training experience and the job context
General principles:
General principles: involves teaching trainees the general rules and theoretical principles
that underline the use and application of trained knowledge and skills.
Training program provides trainees with an explanation of the theory and principles behind
a skill or task that they are learning to perform.
On the job application is more likely when trainees are taught general rules and theoretical
principles that underlie training content
Stimulus variability:
Stimulus variability: involves providing trainees with a variety of training stimuli and
experiences such as multiple examples of a concept or practice experience in a variety of
situations.
Stimulus variability can be incorporated into a training program by using different models
that vary in terms of their characteristics (eg: gender or age) by modelling different situation
(Eg: different types of negotiation scenarios for a training program on negotiation skills),
and by using models with different levels of competence in performing the training task
(successful and unsuccessful).
Trainees can also increase stimulus variability by describing a variety of examples and
experiences in relation to the training content and by asking trainees to discuss their own
experiences in relation to the training material
Using several examples has been found to be more effective than repeating the same
example
Work environment:
Characteristics of the work environment before training (the pre training environment) as well as
after training (the post training environment) also influence transfer.
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