Management and Organizational Studies 3343A/B Chapter 8: 3343 T&D Chapter 8 Textbook Notes

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T&D Chapter 8 Textbook Notes
What is Technology- based training?
Technology based training: refers to training that involves the use of technology to deliver
courses, such as Web-based training; computerized self-study (including CROMs, DVDs, and
diskettes); satellite or broadcast TV; and video-audio, or teleconferencing.
(Any technology that delivers education or training or supports delivery of these subject would be
included in the definition).
75% orgs in Can use it to deliver training
By contrast:
Traditional training: refers to training that does not involve the use of technology to deliver
ouses, suh as lassoo taiig ith a lie istuto (egadless of the istuto’s o leae’s
use of technology during the class); non-computerized self-study, such as textbooks or workbooks;
non computerized games; seminars; lectures; or outdoor programs.
Confusing thing about technology based training?
Is the many different terms used to refer to the various forms of technology based training.
Although, there are some technical distinctions between some of the methods, the distinctions
are generally not apparent to trainees and often have to do with where the programs and data are
located and the ease with which they can be updated.
Nonetheless it is important to understand the terms used to describe the different types of
technology-based training
In Canada, the use of technology for training has increased over the last decade and companies
have made major advances
Major types of technology based training:
Internet: loose confederation of computer networks around the world that is connected through
several primary networks
Intranet: general term describing any network contained within an organization. It refers primarily
to networks that use internet technology
Extranet: a collaborative network that uses internet technology to link organizations with their
suppliers, customers, or other organizations that share common goals or information
CD-ROM: format and system for recording, storing, and retrieving electronic information on a
compact disc that is read using an optical drive
Electronic performance support system (EPSS): Integrated computer application, that uses any
combination of expert systems, hypertext, embedded animation, an/or hypermedia to help user
perform a task in real time quickly and with a minimum of support from other people
Electronic simulation: a device or system that replicates or imitates a real device or system
Multimedia: A computer application that uses any combination of text, graphics, audio, animation,
and/or full motion video
Teleconference: The instantaneous exchange of audio, video or text between two or more
individuals or groups at two or more locations
Television (Cable, satellite): Transmission of television signals via cable or satellite technology
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Conference board Study
Learning and dev outlook
Method of Learning
Instructor led class (95%)
Self pace online (73%)
Instructor led online (45%)
Instructor led blended (45%)
Collaborative online (24%)
Self paced (non computer) (26%)
Self paced computer offline (24%)
Computer based training and E-learning:
Use of computers to deliver training generally has been referred to as computer based training or
Although these terms are often used synonymously, there are differences
Computer based training: refers to training that is delivered via the computer for the purpose of
teaching job relevant skills.
It can include text, graphics, and/or animation and be delivered via CD-ROM’s, itaet, o
Web-delivered and CD-ROM formats have received the most attention
A related and increasingly popular terms for technology based training is e-learning.
E-learning (also known as Web-based instruction or WBI): refers to the use of computer network
technology such as the intranet or internet to deliver information or instruction to individuals.
Specific type of computer-based learning
One of the ways that computer based training methods differ is in terms of whether the training
is instructor led or self-directed.
Instructor-led training and self-directed learning:
Like traditional training methods, computer based training can involve an instructor or facilitator
who leads, facilitates, or trains online.
Computer based training that is instructor led is known as instructor led training or ILT.
Examples of instructor led training or ILT are: online discussions and video conferencing.
Main advantage of computer based training:
It can be initiated and controlled by the trainee.
This is known as self-directed learning.
Self-directed learning (SDL): a process that occurs when individuals or groups take the initiative
and responsibility for leaning and manage their own learning experiences.
Major advantage - can be initiated & controlled by the trainee
(They seek out the necessary resources to engage in learning that will enhance their careers
and personal growth).
Employees assess their own needs, use a variety of organizational resources to meet those
needs, and helped with evaluating the effectiveness of meeting their needs.
SDL can be as simple as a booklet that describes a new procedure or a multimedia
SDL has become increasingly popular because traditional methods of training lack the
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Self-directed learning allows trainees to access training materials and programs when they
want to, at their own pace, and sometimes in the sequence their prefer
Benefits and limitations of self-directed learning:
Trainees can learn at their own pace and determine their desired level of expertise
People can learn according to their own styles of learning
Trainees become independent and acquire skills allowing them to learn more efficiently and
Learn what is relevant
Trainees may learn the wrong things or may not learn all there is to know
Trainees may waste time accessing resources and finding helpful material
SDL takes time- the employee has to learn active knowledge-seeking skills, has to acquire
knowledge-gathering skills, must learn to tolerate inefficiencies & mistakes
Asynchronous and synchronous training:
Computer based training can be asynchronous or synchronous.
When training is asynchronous, it is available to employees at any time and from any location.
For example, an asynchronous program might simply involve the posting of text,
information, or instructions on website.
More sophisticated programs can include text, graphics, animation, audio, and video,
thereby providing a multimedia training program.
This, combined with simulations, interactive exercise, tests, and feedback, can result in much
more engaging and active learning experience.
While the use of multimedia involves greater involvement on the part of the trainee, it is
much more expensive to design and develop
When training is synchronous: it is live and in real time so trainees must be at their computer at a
specific time.
A asi shoous poga ight sipl iole hat sessios i hih taiees log o at the
same time and participate in a discussion of some topic.
More sophisticated programs might have trainees from various locations log into the training at a
set time and receive instruction from a trainer who facilitates a discussion, shows slides, answers
questions and provide feedback
Electronic performance support systems:
Common method of asynchronous training is an electronic performance support system.
Electronic performance support system (EPSS): is a computer-based system that provides access
to integrated information, advice, and learning experiences.
Info only accessed when it is needed
Effective for high-turnover jobs/tasks that are difficult, infrequent, and must be performed
Mobile tech applications increase the use of EPSS
It is like a modern day version of a performance or job aid that uses technology
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