Management and Organizational Studies 3343A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Time Series, Absenteeism, Socalled

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What is Training Evaluation?
Using a variety of techniques, objective and subjective information is gathered before, during, and after training to provide the data required to estimate the value of a
training program
At one end of the continuum are simple evaluations that focus on trainee satisfaction
At the other end of the continuum lie more elaborate procedures that provide managers with more information of a richer quali ty about the value of a training
Training evaluation is not a single procedure, rather it is a continuum of techniques, methods, and measures
In the end, training evaluation choices are a trade-off, balancing between quality and complexity/costs between the informational needs of decision makers and the
difficulty and resources required to obtain that information
TRAINING EVALUATION: A process to assess the value (the worthiness) of training programs to employees and to organizations
Management has a stake in ensuring that the resources invested in training bear fruit
Assist managers in identifying the training programs most useful to employees and to assist management in the determination o f who should be trained
Determine the cost benefits of a program and to help ascertain which program or technique is most cost -effective
Determine whether the training program has achieved the expected results or solved the problem for which training was the ant icipated solution
Diagnose the strengths and weaknesses of a program and pinpoint needed improvements
Use the evaluation information to justify and reinforce, if merited, the value and credibility of the training function to th e organization
Training evaluation is therefore of value to:
Why Conduct Training Evaluations?
Perhaps dissatisfied with reaction-based evaluations, and unable or unwilling to consider the use of better approaches, many organizations have chosen to forgo
training evaluation
Findings have shown that organizations are abandoning evaluation altogether
Do Organizations Conduct Training Evaluations?
Barriers to Training Evaluation
Evaluation requires that perceptual and/or objective information furnished by trainees, their supervisors, and even others (s uch as peers, subordinates, and/or clients) be
gathered before, during, and/or after the training session
These data gathering and analytical efforts require extensive collaboration from the trainees, their supervisors, and so on, which is disruptive and understandably difficult
to obtain
Some training departments do not assess training because training evaluation requires knowledge about evaluation models, rese arch design, measurement, questionnaire
construction, and data analysis this may seem like an intimidating prospect
Evaluation also costs money
Moreover, with the advent of modern information technologies and new evaluation models and designs, the disruptive impact and costs of data collection can now be
seriously eased
Pragmatic Barriers to Training Evaluation
Evaluations are conducted when there is pressure from management to do so in the absence of such pressures, many training managers would rather forgo the exercise
Some trainers fear that this will reflect poorly on them and/or the training function and the service they offer
But without evaluations, managers are unable to demonstrate their value to the organization, which may be inherently more ris ky than launching an evaluation system that
can improve training and its effectiveness
Conflict of interest is unlikely when training managers make use of the established methods of evaluation
Other trainers do not evaluate on ethical grounds they feel that evaluations should be conducted by external professionals to avoid a perceived or actual conflict of
Political Barriers to Training Evaluation
The most common training evaluations rely on trainee perceptions at the conclusion of training, while more sophisticated evaluations go further to analyze the
extent of trainee learning and the post-training behavior of employees
More recently, there has been a growing emphasis on evaluation studies that also assess the psychological forces that operate during training programs and
that impact outcome measures such as learning and behavioral change
Understanding the organization's culture and climate as well as its policies can strongly affect training choices and effectiveness
Information about the work environment to which the trainee returns can be useful in evaluation
The data collected:
Key goal is to identify improvements to the instructional experience
FORMATIVE EVALUATIONS: Provide data about various aspects of a training program
Economic indices are often an integral and important part of these types of evaluations; consequently, organizational managers show great interest in
these results
SUMMATIVE EVALUATIONS: Provide data about the worthiness or effectiveness of a training program
The purpose of the evaluation:
Evaluations may be distinguished from one another with respect to the data gathered and analyzed, and the fundamental purpose for which the evaluation is being
DESCRIPTIVE EVALUATIONS: Provide information that describes the trainee once he or she has completed a training program
CAUSAL EVALUATIONS: Provide information to determine whether training caused the post-training behaviors
A further distinction can be made between descriptive and causal evaluations
Types of Training Evaluation
Models of training evaluation specify the information (the variables) that is to be measured in training evaluations and thei r interrelationships
The COMA model and the Decision-Based Evaluation model are two recent efforts to improve this model
The dominant training model is Donald Kirkpatrick's hierarchical model
Models of Training Evaluation
Kirkpatrick's Hierarchical Model: The Four Levels of Training Evaluation
Chapter 11: Training Evaluation
April 18, 2015
1:40 PM
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