Management and Organizational Studies 3343A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Web Conferencing, Videotelephony, Web 2.0

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Chapter 8 Technology-Based Training Methods
What is Technology- based training?
Technology based training: refers to training that involves the use of technology to deliver
courses, such as Web-based training; computerized self-study (including CROMs, DVDs, and
diskettes); satellite or broadcast TV; and video-audio, or teleconferencing.
- (Any technology that delivers education or training or supports delivery of these subject
would be included in the definition).
By contrast:
Traditional training: refers to training that does not involve the use of technology to deliver
courses, such as classroom training with a live instructor (regardless of the instructor’s or
learner’s use of technology during the class); non-computerized self-study, such as textbooks or
workbooks; non computerized games; seminars; lectures; or outdoor programs.
Confusing thing about technology based training?
- Is the many different terms used to refer to the various forms of technology based
- Although, there are some technical distinctions between some of the methods, the
distinctions are generally not apparent to trainees and often have to do with where the
programs and data are located and the ease with which they can be updated.
- Nonetheless it is important to understand the terms used to describe the different types
of technology-based training
- In Canada, the use of technology for training has increased over the last decade and
companies have made major advances
Major types of technology based training:
1. Internet: loose confederation of computer networks around the world that is connected
through several primary networks
2. Intranet: general term describing any network contained within an organization. It refers
primarily to networks that use internet technology
3. Extranet: a collaborative network that uses internet technology to link organizations with
their suppliers, customers, or other organizations that share common goals or
4. CD-ROM: format and system for recording, storing, and retrieving electronic information
on a compact disc that is read using an optical drive
5. Electronic performance support system (EPSS): Integrated computer application,
that uses any combination of expert systems, hypertext, embedded animation, an/or
hypermedia to help user perform a task in real time quickly and with a minimum of
support from other people
6. Electronic simulation: a device or system that replicates or imitates a real device or
7. Multimedia: A computer application that uses any combination of text, graphics, audio,
animation, and/or full motion video
8. Teleconference: The instantaneous exchange of audio, video or text between two or
more individuals or groups at two or more locations
9. Television (Cable, satellite): Transmission of television signals via cable or satellite
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Computer based training and E-learning:
- Use of computers to deliver training generally has been referred to as computer based
training or e-learning.
- Although these terms are often used synonymously, there are differences
-Computer based training: refers to training that is delivered via the computer for the
purpose of teaching job relevant skills.
oIt can include text, graphics, and/or animation and be delivered via CD-ROM’s,
intranet, or internet.
-Web-delivered and CD-ROM formats have received the most attention
- A related and increasingly popular terms for technology based training is e-learning.
- E-learning (also known as Web-based instruction or WBI): refers to the use of
computer network technology such as the intranet or internet to deliver information or
instruction to individuals.
-One of the ways that computer based training methods differ is in terms of
whether the training is instructor led or self-directed.
Instructor-led training and self-directed learning:
- Like traditional training methods, computer based training can involve an instructor or
facilitator who leads, facilitates, or trains online.
- Computer based training that is instructor led is known as instructor led training or ILT.
- Examples of instructor led training or ILT are: online discussions and video conferencing.
Main advantage of computer based training:
- It can be initiated and controlled by the trainee.
oThis is known as self-directed learning.
-Self-directed learning (SDL): a process that occurs when individuals or groups take the
initiative and responsibility for leaning and manage their own learning experiences.
o(They seek out the necessary resources to engage in learning that will enhance
their careers and personal growth).
oEmployees assess their own needs, use a variety of organizational
resources to meet those needs, and helped with evaluating the
effectiveness of meeting their needs.
oSDL can be as simple as a booklet that describes a new procedure or a
multimedia program.
oSDL has become increasingly popular because traditional methods of training
lack the flexibility to respond quickly to dramatic and constant organizational
change and trainee’s needs.
oSelf-directed learning allows trainees to access training materials and programs
when they want to, at their own pace, and sometimes in the sequence their
Asynchronous and synchronous training:
- Computer based training can be asynchronous or synchronous.
- When training is asynchronous, it is available to employees at any time and from any
oFor example, an asynchronous program might simply involve the posting of text,
information, or instructions on website.
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oMore sophisticated programs can include text, graphics, animation, audio, and
video, thereby providing a multimedia training program.
oThis, combined with simulations, interactive exercise, tests, and feedback, can
result in much more engaging and active learning experience.
oWhile the use of multimedia involves greater involvement on the part of the
trainee, it is much more expensive to design and develop
Benefits and limitations of self-directed learning:
- Trainees can learn at their own pace and determine their desired level of expertise
- People can learn according to their own styles of learning
- Trainees become independent and acquire skills allowing them to learn more efficiently
and effectively.
- Trainees may learn the wrong things or may not learn all there is to know
- Trainees may waste time accessing resources and finding helpful material
- SDL takes time- the employee has to learn active knowledge-seeking skills, has to
acquire knowledge-gathering skills
- When training is synchronous: it is live and in real time so trainees must be at their
computer at a specific time.
- A basic synchronous program might simply involve “chat” sessions in which trainees log
on at the same time and participate in a discussion of some topic.
- More sophisticated programs might have trainees from various locations log into the
training at a set time and receive instruction from a trainer who facilitates a discussion,
shows slides, answers questions and provide feedback
Electronic performance support systems:
- Common method of asynchronous training is an electronic performance support system.
-Electronic performance support system (EPSS): is a computer-based system that
provides access to integrated information, advice, and learning experiences.
oIt is like a modern day version of a performance or job aid that uses technology
- EPPS provides several types of support including assisting, warning, advising, teaching,
and evaluating.
Goal of EPPS:
- Is to provide whatever is necessary to aid performance and learning at the time is
- EPPS saved in delivery time (consultants did not need to spend three weeks in
classrooms) and reduced costs in updates.
- With an EPPS, information is accessed only when it is needed. Only the information that
is needed is given; there is no information overload.
- EPPS is particularly good useful for training in high-turnover jobs (like hotel staff and
tasks that are difficult and performed infrequently)
Video and web conferencing:
- Common method of synchronous training is video conferencing.
-Video conferencing: involves linking a subject-matter expert or trainer to employees by
means of two-way television and satellite technology.
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