Management and Organizational Studies 3343A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Job Performance, Verbal Behavior, Work Unit

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Chapter 10 Transfer of training:
What is transfer of training?
- Organizations are increasingly concerned about the value added of human program.
- When it comes to training, they are concerned about the transfer of training.
Transfer of training: refers to the application of the knowledge and skills acquired in a training
program on the job and the maintenance of acquired knowledge and skills over time
- There are two conditions of transfer of training:
1. Generalization: refers to the use or application off learned material to the job
2. Maintenance: refers to the use or application of learned material on the job over a period of
time.
- Transfer of training occurs when learned material is generalized to the context and
maintenance over a period of time on the job.
- The extent to which a training program transfers to the job can be described as positive,
zero, or negative transfer.
- When transfer is positive, trainees effectively apply new knowledge, skills, and attitudes
acquired in training on the job.
- If transfer is zero, trainees are not using new knowledge and skills on the job.
- When transfer is negative, training has had a negative effect and trainees are
performing worse as a result of a training program.
- Transfer of training can also be considered in terms of the type of situations in which
trainees can apply what was learned in training on the job. For example, near transfer
refers to the extent to which trainees can apply what was learned in training to situations
that are very similar to those in which they were trained.
- On the other hand, far transfer refers to the extent to which trainees can apply what
was learned in training to novel or different situations from those in which they were
trained.
- Final distinction is horizontal and vertical transfer. Horizontal transfer: involves the
transfer of knowledge and skills across different settings or context at the same level.
Vertical transfer: refers to transfer from the individual or trainee level upward to the
organization level.
- In other words, it is concerned with the extent to which changes in trainee’s behaviour
and performance transfer to organizational level outcomes.
- This is an important
distinction because
transfer to the job
(eg: horizontal
transfer) might not
lead to changes in
organizational
outcomes (eg:
vertical transfer).
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Barriers to the transfer of training:
Immediate manager does not support training
The culture in the work group does not support the training
No opportunity exists to use the skills
No time is provide to use the skills
Skills could not be applied to the job
The systems and processes did not support the skills
Skills no longer apply because of changed job responsibilities
Skills are not appropriate in our work unit
Did not see a need to apply what was learned
Old habits could not be changed
Reward systems don’t support new skills
Transfer of training process:
- One way to understand the transfer of training is to identify the factors that contribute to
positive transfer of training.
- A good place to start is Baldwin and Ford’s Model of the transfer of training process
- Training inputs include trainee characteristics, training design, and the work
environment.
- The conditions of transfer are transfer generalization and maintenance.
- According to the model, trainee characteristics, training design, and the work
environment have a direct effect on learning and retention.
- Training characteristics, the work environment, and learning and retention have a direct
effect on transfer generalization and maintenance.
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- Learning and retention are a necessary but not sufficient condition for transfer.
oThis is because trainee characteristics and the work environment also play a
critical role in whether or not trainees apply to what they learn in training on the
job.
Trainee characteristics:
- Trainee characteristics are important for the transfer of training.
- In fact, the same trainee characteristics that influence learning and retention are also
important for transfer.
- Trainee differences in these characteristics can help us understand why some trainees
are more likely to transfer than others.
- Trainees with higher cognitive ability, training motivation, and self-efficacy are more likely
to learn and transfer. Among the trainee characteristics, cognitive ability has been found
to be most strongly related to transfer.
- Another trainee characteristics that is particularly relevant to transfer is motivation to
transfer. Motivation to transfer: is a trainee intended efforts to utilize skills and
knowledge learned in training on the job. Motivation to transfer has been found to be
significant predictor of positive transfer.
Training Design:
- A number of design elements that are known are learning principles that can be
incorporated into a training program to improve the transfer of training
Identical elements:
Identical elements: involve providing trainees with training experiences and conditions that
closely resemble those in the actual work environment.
- Identical elements theory states that transfer and have been shown to increase trainee’s
retention of motor and verbal behaviour.
- Are especially important for near transfer and have been shown to increase trainees
retention of motor and verbal behaviours
- Physical fidelity involves making the condition of training programs such as the
surrounding, tasks, and equipment similar to the work environment.
- Psychological fidelity has to do with the extent that trainees attach similar meanings to
the training experience and the job context
General principles:
General principles: involves teaching trainees the general rules and theoretical principles that
underline the use and application of trained knowledge and skills.
- Training program provides trainees with an explanation of the theory and principles
behind a skill or task that they are learning to perform.
- On the job application is more likely when trainees are taught general rules and
theoretical principles that underlie training content
Stimulus variability:
Stimulus variability: involves providing trainees with a variety of training stimuli and
experiences such as multiple examples of a concept or practice experience in a variety of
situations.
- Stimulus variability can be incorporated into a training program by using different models
that vary in terms of their characteristics (eg: gender or age) by modelling different
situation (Eg: different types of negotiation scenarios for a training program on
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